Plant Growth Regulation

, Volume 47, Issue 1, pp 1–7 | Cite as

Changes in Endogenous Cytokinins During Germination and Seedling Establishment of Tagetes minuta L.

  • Wendy A. Stirk
  • John D. Gold
  • Ondřei Novák
  • Miroslav Strnad
  • Johannes van Staden


Endogenous cytokinins were quantified and identified in germinating achenes and developing seedlings of Tagetes minuta L. incubated at 25 °C over a 144 h period. The process of germination (radicle emergence) was completed 38 h after commencement of imbibition. Subsequent growth was considered to cover seedling establishment. Eighteen isoprenoid cytokinins, belonging to the zeatin (9), dihyrozeatin (5) and isopentenyladenine (4) groups and one aromatic cytokinin, benzyladenine, were identified. The total isoprenoid cytokinin concentration increased upon imbibition, reached a peak by 48 h and subsequently decreased with seedling development. The individual cytokinin groups and the respective derivatives within each group did, however, not follow such a consistent trend. During the course of the experiment, the ribotides and ribosides were present in the highest concentrations, reaching a peak at 48 h and decreasing thereafter. The free bases and O-glucoside remained at low levels throughout the experiment. Isopentenyladenine-9-glucoside increased dramatically in the developing seedlings and after 144 h was the predominate cytokinin. Benzyladenine was the only aromatic cytokinin detected throughout the experiment. It was present in high concentrations in the dry achenes and declined rapidly upon imbibition.

Key words

Cytokinins Germination Seedling establishment Tagetes minuta 



abscisic acid






cytokinin binding protein








dihydrozeatin riboside


dihydrozeatin riboside-5′-monophosphate


dihydrozeatin riboside-O-glucoside


high performance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry


















zeatin riboside


zeatin reductase


zeatin riboside-5′-monophosphate


zeatin riboside-O-glucoside


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Copyright information

© Springer 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wendy A. Stirk
    • 1
  • John D. Gold
    • 1
  • Ondřei Novák
    • 2
  • Miroslav Strnad
    • 2
  • Johannes van Staden
    • 1
  1. 1.Research Centre for Plant Growth and Development, School of Biological and Conservation SciencesUniversity of KwaZulu-Natal PietermaritzburgScottsvilleSouth Africa
  2. 2.Laboratory of Growth RegulatorsPalacký University & Institute of Experimental Botany ASCROlomoucCzech Republic

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