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Plant Growth Regulation

, Volume 47, Issue 1, pp 1–7 | Cite as

Changes in Endogenous Cytokinins During Germination and Seedling Establishment of Tagetes minuta L.

  • Wendy A. Stirk
  • John D. Gold
  • Ondřei Novák
  • Miroslav Strnad
  • Johannes van Staden
Article

Abstract

Endogenous cytokinins were quantified and identified in germinating achenes and developing seedlings of Tagetes minuta L. incubated at 25 °C over a 144 h period. The process of germination (radicle emergence) was completed 38 h after commencement of imbibition. Subsequent growth was considered to cover seedling establishment. Eighteen isoprenoid cytokinins, belonging to the zeatin (9), dihyrozeatin (5) and isopentenyladenine (4) groups and one aromatic cytokinin, benzyladenine, were identified. The total isoprenoid cytokinin concentration increased upon imbibition, reached a peak by 48 h and subsequently decreased with seedling development. The individual cytokinin groups and the respective derivatives within each group did, however, not follow such a consistent trend. During the course of the experiment, the ribotides and ribosides were present in the highest concentrations, reaching a peak at 48 h and decreasing thereafter. The free bases and O-glucoside remained at low levels throughout the experiment. Isopentenyladenine-9-glucoside increased dramatically in the developing seedlings and after 144 h was the predominate cytokinin. Benzyladenine was the only aromatic cytokinin detected throughout the experiment. It was present in high concentrations in the dry achenes and declined rapidly upon imbibition.

Key words

Cytokinins Germination Seedling establishment Tagetes minuta 

Abbreviations

ABA

abscisic acid

BA

benzyladenine

c

cis

CBP

cytokinin binding protein

DHZ

dihyrozeatin

DHZOG

dihydrozeatin-O-glucoside

DHZ9G

dihydrozeatin-9-glucoside

DHZR

dihydrozeatin riboside

DHZR5MP

dihydrozeatin riboside-5′-monophosphate

DHZROG

dihydrozeatin riboside-O-glucoside

HPLC–MS

high performance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry

iP

isopentenyladenine

iP9G

isopentenyladenine-9-glucoside

iPR

isopentenyladenosine

iPR5MP

isopentenyladenosine-5′-monophosphate

t

trans

Z

zeatin

ZOG

zeatin-O-glucoside

Z9G

zeatin-9-glucoside

ZR

zeatin riboside

ZRED

zeatin reductase

ZR5MP

zeatin riboside-5′-monophosphate

ZROG

zeatin riboside-O-glucoside

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Copyright information

© Springer 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wendy A. Stirk
    • 1
  • John D. Gold
    • 1
  • Ondřei Novák
    • 2
  • Miroslav Strnad
    • 2
  • Johannes van Staden
    • 1
  1. 1.Research Centre for Plant Growth and Development, School of Biological and Conservation SciencesUniversity of KwaZulu-Natal PietermaritzburgScottsvilleSouth Africa
  2. 2.Laboratory of Growth RegulatorsPalacký University & Institute of Experimental Botany ASCROlomoucCzech Republic

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