Journal of Grid Computing

, Volume 14, Issue 1, pp 5–22 | Cite as

Online Bi-Objective Scheduling for IaaS Clouds Ensuring Quality of Service

  • Andrei TchernykhEmail author
  • Luz Lozano
  • Uwe Schwiegelshohn
  • Pascal Bouvry
  • Johnatan E. Pecero
  • Sergio Nesmachnow
  • Alexander Yu. Drozdov


This paper focuses on a bi-objective experimental evaluation of online scheduling in the Infrastructure as a Service model of Cloud computing regarding income and power consumption objectives. In this model, customers have the choice between different service levels. Each service level is associated with a price per unit of job execution time, and a slack factor that determines the maximal time span to deliver the requested amount of computing resources. The system, via the scheduling algorithms, is responsible to guarantee the corresponding quality of service for all accepted jobs. Since we do not consider any optimistic scheduling approach, a job cannot be accepted if its service guarantee will not be observed assuming that all accepted jobs receive the requested resources. In this article, we analyze several scheduling algorithms with different cloud configurations and workloads, considering the maximization of the provider income and minimization of the total power consumption of a schedule. We distinguish algorithms depending on the type and amount of information they require: knowledge free, energy-aware, and speed-aware. First, to provide effective guidance in choosing a good strategy, we present a joint analysis of two conflicting goals based on the degradation in performance. The study addresses the behavior of each strategy under each metric. We assess the performance of different scheduling algorithms by determining a set of non-dominated solutions that approximate the Pareto optimal set. We use a set coverage metric to compare the scheduling algorithms in terms of Pareto dominance. We claim that a rather simple scheduling approach can provide the best energy and income trade-offs. This scheduling algorithm performs well in different scenarios with a variety of workloads and cloud configurations.


Cloud computing Service level agreement Energy efficiency Multi-objective scheduling IaaS Provider income 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andrei Tchernykh
    • 1
    Email author
  • Luz Lozano
    • 1
  • Uwe Schwiegelshohn
    • 2
  • Pascal Bouvry
    • 3
  • Johnatan E. Pecero
    • 3
  • Sergio Nesmachnow
    • 4
  • Alexander Yu. Drozdov
    • 5
  1. 1.CICESE Research CenterEnsenadaMéxico
  2. 2.TU Dortmund UniversityDortmundGermany
  3. 3.University of LuxembourgLuxembourgBelgium
  4. 4.Universidad de la RepúblicaMontevideoUruguay
  5. 5.Moscow Institute of Physics and TechnologyDolgoprudnyRussia

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