Journal of Grid Computing

, Volume 4, Issue 3, pp 225–246 | Cite as

Labs of the World, Unite!!!

  • Walfredo CirneEmail author
  • Francisco Brasileiro
  • Nazareno Andrade
  • Lauro B. Costa
  • Alisson Andrade
  • Reynaldo Novaes
  • Miranda Mowbray


eScience is rapidly changing the way we do research. As a result, many research labs now need non-trivial computational power. Grid and voluntary computing are well-established solutions for this need. However, not all labs can effectively benefit from these technologies. In particular, small and medium research labs (which are the majority of the labs in the world) have a hard time using these technologies as they demand high visibility projects and/or high-qualified computer personnel. This paper describes OurGrid, a system designed to fill this gap. OurGrid is an open, free-to-join, cooperative Grid in which labs donate their idle computational resources in exchange for accessing other labs’ idle resources when needed. It relies on an incentive mechanism that makes it in the best interest of participants to collaborate with the system, employs a novel application scheduling technique that demands very little information, and uses virtual machines to isolate applications and thus provide security. The vision is that OurGrid enables labs to combine their resources in a massive worldwide computing platform. OurGrid is in production since December 2004. Any lab can join it by downloading its software from

Key words

free-to-join Grids Grid computing Grid scheduling incentive to collaborate peer-to-peer Grids sandboxing 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Abramson, D., Buyya, R., Giddy, J.: A computational economy for Grid computing and its implementation in the Nimrod-G resource broker. Future Gener. Comput. Syst. 18, 1061–1074 (2002)zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Anderson, D., Cobb, J., Korpela, E.: SETI@home: An experiment in public-resource computing. Communications of the ACM 45(11), 56–61 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Anderson, D.: Public computing: Reconnecting people to science. Proceedings of Shared Knowledge and the Web, Madrid, Spain, Nov. 17–19 2003Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Andrade, N., Brasileiro, F., Cirne, W., Mowbray, M.: Discouraging free-riding in a peer-to-peer CPU-sharing Grid. Proceedings of 13th IEEE International Symposium on High-Performance Distributed Computing (HPDC13), Honolulu, Hawaii, 4–9 June 2004Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Andrade, N., Cirne, W., Brasileiro, F., Roisenberg, P.: OurGrid: An approach to easily assemble Grids with equitable resource sharing. Proceedings of 9th Workshop on Job Scheduling Strategies for Parallel Processing, June 2003Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Andrade, N., Mowbray, M., Cirne, W., Brasileiro, F.: When can an autonomous reputation scheme discourage free-riding in a peer-to-peer system? Proceedings of 4th Workshop on Global and Peer-to-Peer Computing (GP2PC), Chicago, USA, 19–22 April 2004Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    AspectJ Team: The AspectJ Programming Guide. Cited 14 March 2006 (2006)
  8. 8.
    Barham, P., et al.: Xen and the art of virtualization. Proceedings of SOPS’2003Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Basu, S., Banerjee, S., Sharma, P., Lee, S.-J.: NodeWiz: Peer-to-peer resource discovery for Grids. Proceedings of 5th International Workshop on Global and Peer-to-Peer Computing (in conjunction with CCGRID 2005), May 2005Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Beck, K.: Extreme Programming Explained: Embrace Change. Addison-Wesley (1999)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Berman, F., Fox, G., Hey, T. (eds.): Grid Computing: Making The Global Infrastructure a Reality. Wiley (2003)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bosilca, G., et al.: MPICH-V: Toward a scalable fault tolerant MPI for volatile nodes. In: Proceedings of 2002 ACM/IEEE Conference on Supercomputing, Baltimore, Maryland, pp. 1–18, 2002Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Buyya, R., Abramson, D., Giddy, J.: An economy driven resource management architecture for computational power Grids. Proceedings of International Conference on Parallel and Distributed Processing Techniques and Applications, 2000Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Buyya, R., Vazhkudai, S.: Compute Power Market: Towards a market-oriented Grid. Proceedings of 1st IEEE/ACM International Symposium on Cluster Computing and the Grid (CCGrid 2001), Beijing, China, 2001Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Butt, A.R., Zhang, R., Hu, Y.: A self-organizing flock of condors. Proceedings of Supercomputing, 2003Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Casanova, H., et al.: Heuristics for scheduling parameter sweep applications in Grid environments. In: Proceedings of 9th Heterogeneous Computing Workshop, pp. 349–363, 2000Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    CERN: Worldwide LCG Computing Grid. Cited 14 March 2006 (2006)
  18. 18.
    Cirne, W., Marzullo, K.: The Computational Co-op: Gathering Clusters into a Metacomputer. Proceedings of IPPS/SPDP’99, April 1999Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Cirne, W., et al.: Running bag-of-tasks applications on computational Grids: The MyGrid approach. Proceedings of ICCP’2003: International Conference on Parallel Processing, Oct. 2003Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Cohen, B.: Incentives build robustness in BitTorrent. Proceedings of Workshop on Economics of Peer-to-Peer Systems, June 2003Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    COPAD project announcement. Cited 14 March 2006
  22. 22.
    Costa, L., Cirne, W., Fireman, D.: Converting space shared resources into intermittent resources for use in bag-of-tasks Grids. Proceedings of 17th Symposium on Computer Architecture and High Performance Computing (SBAC-PAD’2005), Oct. 2005Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Czajkowski, K., et al. From Open Grid Services Infrastructure to WS-Resource Framework: Refactoring & Evolution. Version 1.1, 3/05/2004. Cited 14 March 2006
  24. 24.
    Damiani, E., Vimercati, S., Paraboschi, S., Samarati, P.: Managing and sharing servents’ reputations in peer-to-peer systems. IEEE Transactions on Data and Knowledge Engineering 15(4), 840–854 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    To appear: Dantas, A., Cirne, W., Saikoski, K.: Using AOP to Bring a Project Back in Shape: The OurGrid Case. J Braz Comput Soc. Available at Cited 14 March 2006
  26. 26.
    Dodonov, E., Sousa, J., Guardia, H.: GridBox: Securing hosts from malicious and greedy applications. In: Proceedings of Middleware for Grid Computing, pp. 17–22, 2004Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Duarte, A., Brasileiro, F., Cirne, W., Alencar-Filho, J.: Collaborative fault diagnosis in Grids through automated tests. Proceedings of 20th International Conference on Advanced Information Networking and Applications (AINA’2006), April 2006Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Epema, D., et al.: A worldwide flock of condors: Load sharing among workstation clusters. Future Gener. Comput. Syst. 12 (1996)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Fedak, G., et al.: XtremWeb: A generic global computing system. In: Proceedings of 1st International Symposium on Cluster Computing and the Grid, Brisbane, Australia, pp. 582–587, 2001Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Feitelson, D.: Parallel Workloads Archive. Cited 14 March 2006
  31. 31.
    Figueiredo, R., Dinda, P., Fortes, J.: A Case for Grid Computing on Virtual Machines. Proceedings of Intl. Conf. on Distributed Computing Systems (ICDCS), 2003Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Frey, J., et al.: Condor-G: A computation management agent for multi-institutional Grids. Proceedings of 10th IEEE Symposium on High Performance Distributed Computing, HPDC’10, San Francisco, California, August 7–9, 2001Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Foster, I., Iamnitchi, A.: On death, taxes, and the convergence of peer-to-peer and Grid computing. Proceedings of 2nd International Workshop on Peer-to-Peer Systems (IPTPS’03), Berkeley, California, Feb 2003Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Foster, I., Kesselman, C. (eds.): The Grid: Blueprint for a New Computing Infrastructure, 2nd edn. Morgan Kaufmann, 2004Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Garfinkel, T.: Traps and pitfalls: Practical problems in system call interposition based security tools. Proceedings of Internet Society’s 2003 Symposium on Network and Distributed System Security (NDSS 2003)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Garfinkel, T., et al.: Terra: A virtual machine-based platform for trusted computing. Proceedings of 19th Symposium on Operating System Principles (SOSP 2003)Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    The Globus alliance: Cited 14 March 2006
  38. 38.
    Hughes, D., Coulson, G., Walkerdine, J.: Free riding on gnutella revisited: The bell tolls? IEEE Distrib. Syst. Online 6(6) (2005)Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Jabber, Inc.: Cited 14 March 2006
  40. 40.
    Kamvar, S., Schlosser, M., Garcia-Molina, H.: EigenRep: Reputation management in peer-to-peer networks. Proceedings of 12th International World Wide Web Conference, Budapest, Hungary, May 2003Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Kondo, D., Chien, A., Casanova, H: Resource management for short-lived applications on enterprise desktop Grids. Proceedings of Supercomputing’2004, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, Nov. 2004Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Lee, C., et al.: Are user runtime estimates inherently inaccurate? Proceedings of 10th Job Scheduling Strategies for Parallel Processing, June 2004Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Litzkow, M., Livny, M., Mutka, M.: Condor: A hunter of idle workstations. Proceedings of 8th International Conference of Distributed Computing Systems, pp. 104–111, June 1988Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Loscocco, P., et al.: The inevitability of failure: The flawed assumption of security in modern computing environments. In: Proceedings of 21st National Information Systems Security Conference, pp. 303–314, Oct. 1998Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Loscocco, P., Smalley, S.: Integrating flexible support for security policies into the linux operating system. Proceedings of FREENIX track of USENIX Annual Technical Conference, June 2001Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Medeiros, R., Cirne, W., Brasileiro, F., Sauvé, J.: Faults in Grids: Why are they so bad and what can be done about it? Proceedings of Grid 2003: 4th International Workshop on Grid Computing, November 2003Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Grid Economic Services Architecture Working Group. Cited 14 March 2006
  48. 48.
    Paranhos, D., Cirne, W., Brasileiro, F.: Trading cycles for information: Using replication to schedule bag-of-tasks applications on computational Grids. Proceedings of Europar’2003, Austria, 2003Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Riehle, D., Fraleigh, S., Bucka-Lassen, D., Omorogbe, N.: The architecture of a UML virtual machine. In: Proceedings of Conference on Object-Oriented Programming Systems, Languages, and Applications (OOPSLA ’01), pp. 327–341, 2001Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Ripeanu, M., Foster, I.: Mapping the gnutella network: Macroscopic properties of large-scale peer-to-peer systems. Proceedings of First International Workshop on Peer-to-Peer Systems (IPTPS), 2002Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Ripeanu, M.: The Globus Toolkit Ecosystem (and How to Make it Work for You). Cited 14 March 2006
  52. 52.
    Santos, R., Andrade, A., Cirne, W., Brasileiro, F., Andrade, N.: Accurate autonomous accounting in peer-to-peer Grids. In: Proceedings 3rd Workshop on Middleware for Grid Computing (MGC2005), November 2005Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Santos-Neto, E., Cirne, W., Brasileiro, F., Lima, A.: Exploiting replication and data reuse to efficiently schedule data-intensive applications on Grids. In: Proceedings of 10th Workshop on Job Scheduling Strategies for Parallel Processing, June 2004Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Sarmenta, L: Sabotage-tolerance mechanisms for volunteer computing systems. Future Gener. Comput. Syst. 18(4) (2002)Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Saroiu, S., Gummadi, P., Gribble, S.: A measurement study of peer-to-peer file sharing systems. Proceedings of Multimedia Computing and Networking (MMCN) 2002, San Jose, California, Jan. 2002Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    SegHidro project team: SegHidro Web Site Cited 14 March 2006
  57. 57.
    SETI@home team: SETI@home statistics web page. Cited March 2005
  58. 58.
    Silva, F., et al.: Running data mining applications on the Grid: A bag-of-tasks approach. Proceedings of International Conference on Computational Science and its Applications, 2004Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Son, S., Livny, M.: Recovering internet symmetry in distributed computing. Proceedings of GAN’03 Workshop on Grids and Advanced Networks, Tokyo, Japan, 12–15 May 2003Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Thain, D., Tannenbaum, T., Livny, M.: Distributed Computing in Practice: The Condor Experience. Concurrency and Computation: Practice and Experience 17(2–4), 23–356 (2005)Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Tuecke, S., et al.: Open Grid Services Infrastructure (OGSI) Version 1.0. Global Grid Forum Draft Recommendation, 6/27/2003. Cited 14 March 2006
  62. 62.
    Veronez, C., Osthoff, C., Pascutti, P.: HIV-I Protease mutants molecular dynamics research on Grid computing environment. In: Proceedings of WOB pp. 161–164, 2003Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Walfredo Cirne
    • 1
    Email author
  • Francisco Brasileiro
    • 1
  • Nazareno Andrade
    • 1
  • Lauro B. Costa
    • 1
  • Alisson Andrade
    • 1
  • Reynaldo Novaes
    • 2
  • Miranda Mowbray
    • 3
  1. 1.Departamento de Sistemas e Computação, Laboratório de Sistemas DistribuídosUniversidade Federal de Campina GrandeParaibaBrazil
  2. 2.Hewlett PackardPorto AlegreBrazil
  3. 3.Hewlett PackardBristolUnited Kingdom

Personalised recommendations