Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution

, Volume 66, Issue 5, pp 1145–1154 | Cite as

Phenotypic diversity analysis of the fruit of Amomum tsao-ko Crevost et Lemarie, an important medicinal plant in Yunnan, China

  • Zhang Wei
  • Lu Bingyue
  • Meng Hengling
  • Wei Xiang
  • Yang Zhiqing
  • Yang ShengchaoEmail author
Notes on neglected and underutilized crops


Amomum tsao-ko (Zingiberaceae) is a commonly used spice and medicinal plant. Morphological variations exist in the fruits of A. tsao-ko. In this study, we compared the phenotypic traits of fruits collected from nine regions in Yunnan Province, China. Based on the mean square values of fruit weight, number of ridges, seed weight, pericarp thickness, and seed diameter, the fruits of A. tsao-ko in Yunnan were grouped into three categories, corresponding to different regions in Yunnan. A principal component analysis revealed that the number of ridges, number of seeds per fruit, and vertical fruit diameter are the most variable parameters. Considering the genetic improvement potential at the regional level, A. tsao-ko in the regions of Gongshan, Tengchong, Jinping, Lushui, and Pingbian is the most efficient for breeding new cultivars, as the plants growing in these regions have a heavier fruit weight, larger fruit diameter, larger transverse diameter, greater number of ridges, greater seed number per fruit, heavier seed weight, moderate pericarp thickness, and larger seed diameter. Based on the selected area, the nested square analysis showed that the fruit vertical diameter, fruit diameter, and the number of seeds per fruit in the region are greater than the regional mean square, and the differences reached an extremely significant level as well. Thus, these three traits can be selected as genetic materials in this region for breeding.


Amomum tsao-ko Properties of fruit Phenotypic analysis 



This work was supported by the Project of Young and Middle-aged Talent of Yunnan Province (Grant No. 2017HB076) and by National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) (Grant Nos: 31460380, 81560615).

Author’s contribution

Yang SC, Zhang W, Lu BY conceived and designed the experiments; Zhang W, Meng HL and Wei X performed the experiments; Yang SC and Yang ZQ analysed the data; Zhang W, Meng HL and Yang ZQ wrote the manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare they have no conflicts of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Honghe UniversityMengziPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.National and Local Joint Engineering Research Center on Germplasms Innovation and Utilization of Chinese Medicinal Materials in Southwest ChinaYunnan Agriculture UniversityKunmingPeople’s Republic of China

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