Advertisement

Phenotypic characterization of dryland rice (Oryza sativa L.) germplasm conserved in situ (on farm) in a crop-diversity microcenter in southern Brazil

  • Tassiane Terezinha Pinto
  • Juliana Bernardi Ogliari
  • Otavio Rechsteiner Maghelly
Research Article
  • 44 Downloads

Abstract

In the far west of the state of Santa Catarina (FWSC) in southern Brazil, rice is produced from landraces grown in a dryland system, with production focused on household consumption. We characterized 60 local landraces of dryland rice and three improved cultivars from EMBRAPA—Arroz e Feijão for phenotypic diversity based on morphological characteristics. The landraces were collected in 27 rural communities of two municipalities in FWSC. Twenty-one morphological groups (MGs) were identified through the use of the Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean clustering algorithm. Of these 21, 12 were represented by a single landrace. Grain morphology could be used both to distinguish among landraces and to identify different phenotypes within landraces. The geographical distribution of MGs seemed to be completely random. Of the 60 landraces, 35 presented a mixture of characteristics of the Indica and Japonica Groups; 24 presented only characteristics of the Group Indica; and four presented characteristics of Japonica. This finding is intriguing, since rice varieties adapted to dryland agriculture in Brazil generally have genic affinities to the Group Japonica. A clustering analysis based on both qualitative and quantitative characteristics identified four isolated populations and the formation of four groups (cophenetic correlation = 0.82). Some landraces from this study are being subjected to evaluation for their agronomic potential, to be followed by individual selection with progeny testing. This breeding approach is being proposed as a tool to support in situ/on farm conservation of rice landraces in FWSC.

Keywords

Germplasm characterization Morphological groups Rice landraces Genetic diversity 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This is a collaborative work involving family farmers in far western Santa Catarina with the support of students of the Federal University of Santa Catarina (UFSC) and partnership organizations (Secretary of Education and Secretary of Health of Anchieta and Guaraciaba, Parish of Santa Lucia of Anchieta, Small-Scale Farmers Movement/MPA, Union of Workers of Family Farming/SINTRAF of Anchieta, Association of Small Growers of Organic Maize Landrace and Derivatives/ASSO, Central Development Association of Microbasins of Guaraciaba, Integrated Company of Agricultural Development of Santa Catarina/CIDASC, and the Experimental Station of the Company of Agricultural Research and Rural Extension of Santa Catarina/EPAGRI from Itajaí/SC). Wander Luís Marques collaborated in the creation of the geographical location map of the FWSC. Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel/Capes provided a scholarship to Tassiane Terezinha Pinto.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

No known or potential conflicts of interest exist for any author.

References

  1. Abadie T et al (2005) Construção de uma coleção nuclear de arroz para o Brasil. Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira 40(2):129–136.  https://doi.org/10.1590/S0100-204X2005000200005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Almeida JAP (2004) O arroz vermelho cultivado no Brasil. Editora Embrapa, TeresinaGoogle Scholar
  3. Alvarez F, De Cassia R, Crusciol C, Alexandre C, Stephan Nascente A (2012) Análise de crescimento e produtividade de cultivares de arroz de terras altas dos tipos tradicional, intermediário e moderno. Pesquisa Agropecuária Tropical 42(4):397–406.  https://doi.org/10.1590/S1983-40632012000400008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Araújo ES, Souza SR, Fernandes MS (2003) Características morfológicas e moleculares e acúmulo de proteína em grãos de variedades de arroz do Maranhão. Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira 38(11):1281–1288.  https://doi.org/10.1590/S0100-204X2003001100005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Areias RGBM, Paiva DM, Souza SR, Fernandes MS (2006) Similaridade genética de variedades crioulas de arroz, em função da morfologia, marcadores RAPD e acúmulo de proteína nos grãos. Bragantia 65(1):19–28.  https://doi.org/10.1590/S0006-87052006000100004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Barbosa-Filho MP, Yamada T (2002) Upland rice production in Brazil. Better Crops Int 16:43–47Google Scholar
  7. Bioversity International, IRRI and WARDA (2007) Descriptors for wild and cultivated rice (Oryza spp.). https://www.bioversityinternational.org/e-library/publications/detail/descriptors-for-wild-and-cultivated-rice-oryza-spp/ Accessed 20 Oct 2018
  8. Brasil (1997) Descritores mínimos para a cultura do arroz. Serviço Nacional de Proteção de cultivares, Diário Oficial da União. http://www.apps.agr.br/upload/ax4_1102200842996900_decreto2366-arroz.pdf Accessed 05 May 2018
  9. Brasil (2008) Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento. Tratado Internacional sobre Recursos Fitogenéticos para Alimentação e Agricultura. Brasília. http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/_Ato2007-2010/2008/Decreto/D6476.htm Accessed 05 May 2018
  10. Brasil (2018) Brazilian rice: Production Profile. http://brazilianrice.com.br/en/sobre-o-brasil/ Accessed 06 May 2018
  11. Brondani C, Borba TCO, Rangel PHN, Brondani RPV (2006) Determination of genetic variability of traditional varieties of Brazilian rice using microsatellite markers. Genet Mol Biol 29(4):676–684.  https://doi.org/10.1590/S1415-47572006000400017 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chang T, Bardenas EA (1965) The morphology and varietal characteristics of the rice plant. The International Rice Research Institute, Los Baños, PhilippinesGoogle Scholar
  13. Clement CR (1999) 1492 and the loss of Amazonian crop genetic resources. II. Crop biogeography at contact. Econ Bot 53(188):203–216.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02866498 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Costa FM, De Almeida Silva NC, Ogliari JB (2016) Maize diversity in southern Brazil: indication of a microcenter of Zea mays L. Genet Resour Crop Evol 64(4):681–700.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10722-016-0391-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Da Silva ED, Montalván R, Ando A (1999) Genealogia dos cultivares brasileiros de arroz-de-sequeiro. Bragantia 58(2):281–286.  https://doi.org/10.1590/S0006-87051999000200007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. De Almeida Silva NC, Vidal R, Costa FM, Vaio M, Ogliari JB (2015) Presence of Zea luxurians (Durieu and Ascherson) Bird in southern Brazil: implications for the conservation of wild relatives of maize. PLoS ONE 10(10):1–16.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0139034 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Embrapa (2013) Catálogo de Cultivares de Arroz 2014. https://www.embrapa.br/busca-de-publicacoes/-/publicacao/985671/catalogo-de-cultivares-de-arroz-2014-2015 Accessed 20 Sept 2015
  18. Fageria NK, Wander AE, Silva SC (2014) Rice (Oryza sativa) cultivation in Brazil. Indian J Agron 59(3):350–358Google Scholar
  19. FAO (2004) Rice around the world—Brazil. http://www.fao.org/rice2004/en/p1.htm Accessed 06 May 2018
  20. Gealy DR, Mitten DH, Rutger JN (2003) Gene flow between red rice (Oryza sativa) and herbicide-resistant rice (O. sativa): implications for weed management. Weed Technol 17(3):627–645.  https://doi.org/10.1614/WT02-100 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Gonçalves GMB et al (2013) Caracterização e avaliação de variedades de arroz de sequeiro conservadas por agricultores do Oeste de Santa Catarina. Revista Agropecuária Catarinense 26:63–69Google Scholar
  22. Hammer Ø, Harper DAT, Ryan PD (2001) PAST: Paleontological Statistics Software Package for education and data analysis. Palaeontol Electron 4(1):1–9Google Scholar
  23. Harlan JR (1992) Crops and man, 2nd edn. American Society of Agronomy/Crop Science Society of America, MadisonGoogle Scholar
  24. Hawkes JG (1983) The diversity of crop plants. Harvard University Press, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Holland JB (2014) Breeding: plants, modern. Encycl Agric Food Syst 2:187–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Jennings PR, Coffman WR, Kauffman HE (1982) Mejoramiento de arroz. Centro Internacional de Agricutura Tropical, Cali, ColombiaGoogle Scholar
  27. Kato Y, Okami M, Katsura K (2009) Yield potential and water use efficiency of aerobic rice (Oryza sativa L.) in Japan. Field Crops Res 113(3):328–334.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fcr.2009.06.010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Marschalek R et al (2017) Image-rice grain scanner: a three-dimensional fully automated assessment of grain size and quality traits. Crop Breed Appl Biotechnol 17:89–97.  https://doi.org/10.1590/1984-70332017v17n1s15 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Menezes BRS, Moreira LB, Lopes HM, Pereira MB (2011) Caracterização morfoagronômica em arroz vermelho e arroz de sequeiro. Pesquisa Agropecuária Tropical 41(4):490–499.  https://doi.org/10.5216/pat.v41i4.11876 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Ogliari JB, Kist V, Canci A (2013) The participatory genetic enhancement of a local maize variety in Brazil. In: de Boef W, Subedi A, Peroni N, Thijssen M, O’Keeffe E (eds) Community biodiversity management. Promoting resilience and the conservation of plant genetic resources. Routledge, Abingdon, pp 265–271Google Scholar
  31. Oksanen J et al (2007) The vegan package—community ecology package. https://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/vegan/vegan.pdf Accessed 05 May 2018
  32. Padrão G (2018) Desempenho da produção vegetal—Arroz. In: Epagri/CEPA (org). Síntese Anual da Agricultura de Santa Catarina 2014–2015. http://docweb.epagri.sc.gov.br/website_cepa/publicacoes/Sintese-Anual-da-Agricultura-SC_2016_17.pdf. Accessed 20 Oct 2018
  33. Pereira JA, Rangel PHN (2001) Produtividade e qualidade de grãos de arroz irrigado no Piauí. Ciência e Agrotecnologia 25:569–575Google Scholar
  34. Pereira JA, Bassinello PZ, Cutrim VDA, Ribeiro VQ (2009) Comparison among agronomic, cooking and nutritional characteristics in white and red rice varieties. Rev Caatinga 22:243–248Google Scholar
  35. Pinto TT (2017) A cultura do arroz de sequeiro no Extremo Oeste de Santa Catarina: diversidade, conhecimentos associados e riscos de erosão genética de variedades locais conservadas pela agricultura familiar. Tese (Doutorado) Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, p 175Google Scholar
  36. Pinto TT, Ogliari JB, Souza R, Gonçalves GMB (2018) O arroz de sequeiro e a segurança alimentar de famílias rurais do Extremo Oeste de Santa Catarina. Revista Agropecuária Catarinense 31(3):44–49.  https://doi.org/10.22491/RAC.2018.v31n3.5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Prasad R, Shivay YS, Kumar D (2017) Current status, challenges, and opportunities in rice production. In: Chauhan B, Jabran K, Mahajan G (eds) Rice production worldwide. Springer, Cham, pp 1–32Google Scholar
  38. R Core Team (2016) R: a language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. http://www.R-project.org/. Accessed 20 Oct 2018
  39. Raimondi JV, Marschalek R, Nodari RO (2014) Genetic base of paddy rice cultivars of southern Brazil. Crop Breed Appl Biotechnol 14:194–199.  https://doi.org/10.1590/1984-70332014v14n3a29 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Sahadevan PC, Namboodiri KMN (1963) Natural crossing in rice. Proc Indian Acad Sci Sect B 58:176.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03051950 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Sang T, Ge S (2007) Genetics and phylogenetics of rice domestication. Curr Opin Genet Dev 17(6):533–538.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gde.2007.09.005 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Sato S, Ishikawa S, Shimono M, Shinjyo C (1996) Genetic studies on an awnness gene An-4 on chromosome 8 in rice Oryza sativa L. Breed Sci 46(4):321–327.  https://doi.org/10.1270/jsbbs1951.46.321 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. SBCS—Sociedade Brasileira de Ciência do Solo (2004) Manual de adubação e de calagem para os estados do Rio Grande do Sul e de Santa Catarina (ROLAS). Sociedade Brasileira de Ciência do Solo-Núcleo Regional Sul, Porto Alegre, BrazilGoogle Scholar
  44. Singh V et al (2017) Rice production in the Americas. In: Chauhan B, Jabran K, Mahajan G (eds) Rice production worldwide. Springer, Cham, pp 137–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Wickert E et al (2014) Exploring variability: new Brazilian varieties SCS119 Rubi and SCS120 Onix for the specialty rices market. Open J Genet 4(2):157–165.  https://doi.org/10.4236/ojgen.2014.42016 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Zeven AC (1998) Landraces: a review of definitions and classifications. Euphytica 104(2):127–139.  https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1018683119237 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Núcleo de Estudos em Agrobiodiversidade (NEABio)Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Rodovia Admar Gonzaga, 1346FlorianópolisBrazil

Personalised recommendations