Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution

, Volume 65, Issue 7, pp 1995–2002 | Cite as

Complete chloroplast DNA sequences of Georgian indigenous polyploid wheats (Triticum spp.) and B plasmon evolution

  • M. Gogniashvili
  • I. Maisaia
  • A. Kotorashvili
  • N. Kotaria
  • T. Beridze
Research Article


Three types of plasmon (A, B and G) are present for genus Triticum. Plasmon B is detected in polyploid species - Triticum turgidum L. and Triticum aestivum L. By now, 21 complete sequences of chloroplast DNA of the genus Triticum is published by different authors. Many inaccuracies can be detected in the sequenced chloroplast DNAs. Therefore, we found it necessary to study of plasmon B evolution to use only those sequences obtained by our method in our laboratory. Complete nucleotide sequences of chloroplast DNA of 11 representatives of Georgian wheat polyploid species were determined. Chloroplast DNA sequencing was performed on an Illumina MiSeq platform. Chloroplast DNA molecules were assembled using the SOAPdenovo computer program. Using T. aestivum L. subsp. macha var. palaeocolchicum as a reference, 5 SNPs were identified in chloroplast DNA of Georgian indigenous polyploid wheats. 38 and 56 bp inversions were observed in paleocolchicum subspecies. The phylogeny tree shows that subspecies macha, durum, carthlicum and palaeocolchicum occupy different positions. According the simplified scheme based on SNP and indel data the ancestral, female parent of all studied polyploid wheats is an unknown X predecesor, from which four lines were formed.


Chloroplast DNA Illumina Indels Sequencing SNP Triticum 



This research was funded by Mr. Kakha Bendukidze (1956–2014) via his Knowledge Fund, a funding organization of the Free University of Tbilisi and Agricultural University of Georgia.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Gogniashvili
    • 1
  • I. Maisaia
    • 2
  • A. Kotorashvili
    • 3
  • N. Kotaria
    • 3
  • T. Beridze
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Molecular GeneticsAgricultural University of GeorgiaTbilisiGeorgia
  2. 2.Institute of BotanyIlia State UniversityTbilisiGeorgia
  3. 3.National Centre for Disease Control and Public HealthTbilisiGeorgia

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