Genetic diversity and differentiation of the Hainan Tall coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) as revealed by inter-simple sequence repeat markers
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Hainan Tall coconut (Cocos nucifera L.), which show the advantageous characteristics of high yield, hardiness, and wind resistance, is the dominant coconut population in Hainan Island, the main area of coconut production in China. An understanding of the genetic diversities and origins of the Hainan Tall population is essential to effective breeding. To achieve this aim, we used dozens of inter-simple sequence repeat molecular markers to characterize the genetic diversity among Hainan Tall and other coconut accessions outside China. Results revealed that Hainan Tall consisted of two main subgroups reflecting different geographic distributions (such as northern vs. southern parts of Hainan Island), and other accessions lacking clear location trends because of human activities. Diversity analysis revealed that the Hainan Tall population exhibits a higher genetic diversity than that of exotic populations mostly collected from Southeast Asia. The phylogenetic clustering results indicated that the Hainan Tall population is domesticated separately from (and earlier than) other coconut accessions, and the differentiation existed within the Hainan Tall population. Among other causes, this notion may explain the high diversity within the Hainan Tall population. Overall, these findings provide a preliminary scenario of the genetic diversities and origins of the Hainan Tall population.
KeywordsCocos nucifera Genetic diversity Differentiation Origin
Amplified fragment length polymorphisms
Inter-simple sequence repeats
Principal coordinate analysis
Restriction fragment length polymorphisms
Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA
Simple sequence repeats
Sequential hierarchical and nested clustering
Unweighted pair group method with arithmetic averages
The authors thank the donors of the coconut accessions from outside Hainan and the Coconut Institute of the CATAS. They also thank all participants in the investigation into the native coconut germplasm and the collection of samples of the Hainan Tall accessions. Finally, they are grateful to Dr. Guanping Yang for revising the manuscript.
This study was funded by a joint collaborative project of the Institute of Tropical Biosciences & Biotechnology (ITBB) with the CRI of the CATAS and Special Foundation for Scientific Research on (Agricultural) Industry (Grant No. 200903026).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
Data Archiving Statement
We used the universal ISSR primers described by the University of British Columbia, Canada (Michael Smith Laboratories, University of British Columbia, Primer set #9, Vancouver, BC, Canada) and hold no other data obtained from or submitted to any other public database.
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