Genetic diversity of melon landraces (Cucumis melo L.) in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region on the basis of simple sequence repeat markers
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We investigated the genetic variation and relationships among 35 melon landraces collected from the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region in northwestern China by using 19 polymorphic simple sequence repeat markers (SSRs). A total of 55 polymorphic alleles were amplified. The number of alleles per SSR locus ranged from 2 to 5 with an average of 2.89 alleles per locus. The average gene diversity (GD) was 0.42 with a range of 0.06–0.71, and the average observed heterozygosity was 0.22 with a range of 0.06–0.97, indicating that the genetic diversity among the Xinjiang melon landraces was abundant. Genetic variation was also detected between the landrace populations in different regions in Xinjiang. The most abundant genetic diversity was observed among the landraces in Eastern Xinjiang, with the highest GD of 0.45 and PIC of 0.39. Eleven alleles (20 %) were found exclusively in the landraces from Eastern Xinjiang, and two alleles (3.6 %) were unique to the landraces from Southern and Northern Xinjiang. The genetic similarity matrix was defined on the basis of Jaccard coefficient to determine the genetic relationships among Xinjiang landraces. Cluster analysis was performed using the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic means, showing that the ‘wild Hami’ (XJ-34) landrace was distinct from the 34 other landraces that were divided into three clusters. Therefore, the genetic background of XJ-34 differed from that of the other landraces. The landraces were not precisely separated on the basis of their geographic origins, although most of these landraces were likely grouped near one another, as visualized through principal coordinate analysis. Thus, western China is one of the primary or secondary centers of melon diversity because of the relatively higher genetic variation detected among Xinjiang landraces. Except the ‘wild Hami’ landrace, Xinjiang melon landraces could be classified into two botanical varieties, namely, var. inodorus and var. cantalupensis. However, the distinction between these two genotypes was not significantly different.
KeywordsCucumis melo Genetic diversity Landraces Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region Simple sequence repeat markers
We are grateful to Professor Q.S Kong for providing helpful and valuable comments. This work was supported by grants from the National Science Foundation of China (Project No. 31260480), in part by the Chinese Post Doctor Research Plan (Project No. 92193), the National Science & Technology Pillar Program during the 12th Five-year Plan Period (2012BAD02B03-4) and the Modern Agro-industry Technology Research System (CARS-26-4).
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Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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