A haplotype specific to North European wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)
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A previous study indicated decreased DNA content of chromosome 4A in the wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Tähti) compared to cvs. Chinese Spring and Rennan. Here we show that the lower 4A DNA content is associated with a specific haplotype in the distal part of 4AL. In 41 cultivars of bread wheat (T. aestivum L.), including cv. Tähti, a common haplotype was identified in the linkage disequilibrium region on the long arm of chromosome 4A (4AL). The haplotype (haplotype A) is characterized by 7 SSR and 5 EST marker alleles, including five zero-alleles. Haplotype A was found in 46 % of the Swedish/Finnish/Estonian spring wheat genotypes, while only one of the modern wheat accessions from Germany carried the same haplotype. Fluorescent cytometry analysis linked haplotype A to diminished DNA content of chromosome 4A. The haplotype was introduced into the Canadian and US breeding programs at the beginning of the twentieth century (cvs. Marquis, Thatcher, Ruby) from the common progenitor, the Polish landrace Fife, and it is still found in modern wheat germplasm in these countries. Zero-alleles characteristic for haplotype A were also detected in several accessions of European spelt (Triticum spelta L.), and in two accessions of tetraploid Triticum timopheevii Zhuk. The presence of haplotype A in European spelt indicates the considerable antiquity of the haplotype, as it must have been inherited from the hexaploid or tetraploid parent of spelt in at least one hybridization event.
KeywordsCommon wheat, Triticum aestivum L. Spelt, Triticum spelta L. Chromosome 4A Zero-alleles Haplotype Linkage disequilibrium
We would like to thank Zdenka Dubská and Romana Šperková for excellent technical support in the preparation of chromosome suspensions. This work has been supported by the program “Collection and Conservation of Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture in 2014–2020” (Estonian Ministry of Agriculture), by institutional research funding IUT 193 of the Estonian Ministry of Education and Research, by the award LO1204 from the National Program of Sustainability I, and by the Czech Science Foundation (award 14-07164S).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
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