Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution

, Volume 61, Issue 8, pp 1565–1580 | Cite as

Genetic structure and eco-geographical adaptation of garlic landraces (Allium sativum L.) in Iran

  • Salar ShaafEmail author
  • Rajiv Sharma
  • Benjamin Kilian
  • Alexander Walther
  • Hakan Özkan
  • Ezzat Karami
  • Bahram Mohammadi
Research Article


In this study we present the genetic analysis of freshly collected garlic landraces (Allium sativum L.) along an eco-geographical transect from northeastern to western Iran covering seven different provinces using ISSR and RAPD markers. A total of 52 polymorphic loci were detected among 31 landrace populations. The percentage of polymorphic bands, the mean effective number of alleles, and the mean gene diversity were 38.82 %, 1.54, and 0.32, respectively. Genetic principal co-ordinate analysis and Structure analysis using 52 polymorphic loci indicated that the germplasm could be divided into two major groups. Principal component analysis (PCA), using geographical and environmental variables suggested the role of both geographical and environmental adaptation in driving and maintaining genetic differentiation between the major groups. In addition, our results showed that the combination of latitude, altitude, and precipitation explains the highest proportion of the variance in the PCA of eco-geographical data. This study shows that geographical and environmental factors together created stronger and more discrete genetic differentiation than isolation by distance alone. These findings emphasize the importance of environmental selection in shaping patterns of genetic structure inferred in Iranian garlic germplasm. We suggest that action should be immediately taken for collecting, protecting and evaluating the genetic diversity of garlic landraces before they disappear in Iran.


Allium sativum Climate Environmental adaptation Genetic structure Iran Isolation by distance 



The authors would like to acknowledge the research and innovation deputy of the Islamic Azad University, Sanandaj Branch for providing the financial support.

Supplementary material

10722_2014_131_MOESM1_ESM.docx (26 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 25 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Salar Shaaf
    • 1
    Email author
  • Rajiv Sharma
    • 2
  • Benjamin Kilian
    • 2
  • Alexander Walther
    • 3
  • Hakan Özkan
    • 4
  • Ezzat Karami
    • 1
  • Bahram Mohammadi
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Sanandaj BranchIslamic Azad UniversitySanandajIran
  2. 2.Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research (IPK), Genebank/Genome DiversityGaterslebenGermany
  3. 3.Department of Earth SciencesUniversity of GothenburgGöthenburgSweden
  4. 4.Department of Field Crops, Faculty of AgricultureUniversity of ÇukurovaAdanaTurkey
  5. 5.Department of Horticultural Science, Abhar BranchIslamic Azad UniversityAbharIran

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