Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution

, Volume 61, Issue 1, pp 69–87 | Cite as

Evaluation of European emmer wheat germplasm for agro-morphological, grain quality traits and molecular traits

  • Linda Mondini
  • Heinrich Grausgruber
  • Mario A. Pagnotta
Research Article


A total of 38 emmer wheat accessions, collected in several European countries, have been evaluated using agro-morphological traits, grain quality characteristics and molecular markers. The agronomic traits evaluated were: vernalisation response, winter hardiness, date of heading and flowering, lodging, plant height at harvest and resistances against powdery mildew (Erysiphe graminis), leaf rust (Puccinia recondita) and yellow rust (Puccinia striiformis). Evaluation of quality traits has been performed measuring the protein content, gluten quality and quantity. In addition, a baking test has been executed. The assessment of genetic variability has been carried out at the molecular level utilizing 6 SSR, 6 EST-SSR markers for genes with known function, and 6 ISSR primers for a total of 107 loci analyzed. Mean 1,000 kernel weight ranged from 31.6 to 39.0 g for winter emmer accessions and from 22.9 to 42.6 for spring emmer accessions. The protein content for both winter and spring emmer was considerably affected by environment and genotype. Nearly, all the spring emmer accessions showed resistance to powdery mildew. Measurement of wet gluten content revealed high values, ranging from 37.0 to 56.6 %. The molecular analysis showed a great value of genetic distance between accessions; the expected heterozygosity and the variance between accessions indicate an equal distribution of the alleles (i.e. alleles frequency almost equal) and the presence of great variability in the analyzed material. Finally, no defined clusters were obtained considering winter versus spring accessions as well as the molecular markers did not discriminate the accessions respect their origin.


Agro-morphological traits Emmer wheat Molecular markers Quality traits 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Linda Mondini
    • 1
  • Heinrich Grausgruber
    • 2
  • Mario A. Pagnotta
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Science and Technologies for Agriculture, Forestry, Nature and Energy (DAFNE)Tuscia UniversityViterboItaly
  2. 2.Department of Crop SciencesBOKU-University of Natural Resources and Life SciencesTullnAustria

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