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Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution

, Volume 60, Issue 1, pp 275–296 | Cite as

Viability of Oryza sativa L. seeds stored under genebank conditions for up to 30 years

  • Fiona R. Hay
  • Flora de Guzman
  • David Ellis
  • Hazel Makahiya
  • Teresita Borromeo
  • N. Ruaraidh Sackville Hamilton
Research Article

Abstract

Germination ability, equilibrium relative humidity (eRH), and moisture content of ‘control’ seed samples representing 183 rice accessions stored in the active (2–4 °C) and base (−10 °C until 1993, then −20 °C) collections of the T. T. Chang Genetic Resources Center were determined after storage for 20.5–30.5 years. Germination of seeds that had been stored in the base collection was generally high (>70 %), whereas germination was more variable for seeds stored in the active collection. Samples with lower viability after storage in the active collection were likely to have lower viability after storage in the base collection. There were significant differences in the moisture content-eRH relationship of the seeds depending on whether the seeds had been stored in the active or base collection. Based on re-test data for regular seed samples regenerated in 1979–1980 and stored in the active collection for up to 31 years, estimates of the time for ability to germinate to fall to 50 % (p 50) ranged from 54 to 997 years. For the same seed samples stored in the base collection for approximately 31 years, ability to germinate has been maintained and germination increased due to improved procedures. The ability to germinate of base collection samples was also generally higher than that of ‘safety duplicate’ samples of the same seed lots that had been sent to the National Center for Genetic Resources Preservation, USA in 1981 and stored at −18 °C. This may have been due to uptake of moisture either during processing for dispatch or as a consequence of poor packaging material. The results are discussed in relation to long-term seed storage and genebank management.

Keywords

Conservation Genebank Oryza sativa Rice Seed longevity 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We would like to acknowledge all the staff who have worked at the T. T. Chang Genetic Resources Center since 1979 and who have therefore contributed to this data set. We are grateful to Nora Kuroda and Stephen Timple (IRRI) who assisted in the germination and moisture testing of the control samples, to Prof. Richard Ellis (University of Reading) for commenting on an earlier version of this paper, and to Dr. Robin Probert (Royal Botanic Gardens Kew) for helpful discussions. The Global Crop Diversity Trust provides financial support towards the maintenance of the rice collections in the T. T. Chang Genetic Resources Center and for safety duplication.

Supplementary material

10722_2012_9833_MOESM1_ESM.xls (34 kb)
Germination and equilibrium relative humidity data for control samples listed in Table 1. (XLS 33 kb)
10722_2012_9833_MOESM2_ESM.doc (2.4 mb)
Germination re-test data for active- and base-stored samples corresponding to the 172 repatriated safety duplicates. Also shown is the latest (after 29.9–30.8 years of storage) germination result for samples from the base collection; the germination of the safety duplicates and of seeds from unopened cans, if available; and the eRH of the seeds upon opening the base-stored cans or safety duplicate packets. Note: Accession 25840 1979WS-regenerated base sample not available at the time of re-testing in 2011. (DOC 2433 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fiona R. Hay
    • 1
  • Flora de Guzman
    • 1
  • David Ellis
    • 2
  • Hazel Makahiya
    • 3
  • Teresita Borromeo
    • 3
  • N. Ruaraidh Sackville Hamilton
    • 1
  1. 1.T. T. Chang Genetic Resources CenterInternational Rice Research InstituteMetro ManilaPhilippines
  2. 2.Plant Genetic Resources Preservation ProgramUSDA-ARS National Center for Genetic Resources PreservationFort CollinsUSA
  3. 3.Crop Science Cluster, College of AgricultureUniversity of the PhilippinesLos BañosPhilippines

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