Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution

, Volume 58, Issue 6, pp 815–824 | Cite as

Genetic diversity and differentiation of cultivated ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer) populations in North-east China revealed by inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers

  • Shan Li
  • Jing Li
  • Xiao-Ling Yang
  • Zhou ChengEmail author
  • Wen-Ju Zhang
Research Article


Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer is a medicinally important herb with a long history of cultivation, and includes three cultivated types, viz. garden ginseng (GGS), forest ginseng (FGS) and transplanted wild ginseng (TGS). In the present study, inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers were employed to investigate the genetic variability in 282 individuals, which corresponded to 16 cultivated ginseng populations. Genetic diversity was high at the species level (h = 0.2886; I = 0.4382; PPB = 98.96%), but relatively lower at the cultivated-type level (GGS: h = 0.2294, I = 0.3590, PPB = 85.42%; FGS: h = 0.1702, I = 0.2559, PPB = 57.29%; TGS: h = 0.2021, I = 0.3125, PPB = 76.04%). The hierarchical analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed pronounced genetic differentiation among populations (Φ ST = 53.94%), which was confirmed by the gene differentiation coefficient (G ST = 0.4910) and low gene flow (N m = 0.5184). Both Principal Coordinates Analysis (PCoA) and UPGMA cluster analysis supported the clustering of all 16 populations into three groups, corresponding to the three cultivated types, among which there occurred remarkable genetic differentiation (Φ ST = 37.43%). Pronounced genetic differentiation was also detected among populations within the three cultivated types (GGS: Φ ST = 40.83%, G ST = 0.3187, N m = 1.0691; FGS: Φ ST = 22.85%, G ST = 0.2328, N m = 1.6480; TGS: Φ ST = 30.68%, G ST = 0.2540, N m = 1.4686). Mantel test indicated no significant correlation between geographic and genetic distances at both species and cultivated-type levels (P > 0.05). These findings have profound implications for the sustainable utilization of this precious medicinal herb.


China Cultivated ginseng Genetic diversity Genetic differentiation Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer 



This study was supported by Fund for Modernization of Traditional Chinese Medicine of Shanghai Science and Technology Committee (08DZ1972500).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shan Li
    • 1
  • Jing Li
    • 1
  • Xiao-Ling Yang
    • 1
  • Zhou Cheng
    • 1
    Email author
  • Wen-Ju Zhang
    • 2
  1. 1.School of Life Sciences and TechnologyTongji UniversityShanghaiPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Institute of Biodiversity Science, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Biodiversity Science and Ecological Engineering, School of Life SciencesFudan UniversityShanghaiPeople’s Republic of China

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