Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution

, Volume 55, Issue 6, pp 803–809 | Cite as

Genetic diversity among Jatropha species as revealed by RAPD markers

  • S. Ganesh Ram
  • K. T. Parthiban
  • R. Senthil Kumar
  • V. Thiruvengadam
  • M. Paramathma
Research Article


The genus Jatropha is native of tropical America with more than 200 species that are widely distributed in tropics with a promise for use as an oil crop for biodiesel. This investigation was carried out to assess the genetic diversity of 12 Jatropha species based on random amplified polymorphic DNA markers. From 26 random primers used, 18 primers gave reproducible amplification banding patterns of 112 polymorphic bands out of 134 bands scored accounting for 80.2% polymorphism across the genotypes. Three primers viz., OPA 4, OPF 11, and OPD 14 generated 100% polymorphic patterns. The polymorphic information content was highest for the primer OPD 14 (0.50) followed by the primers OPF 11 and OPAD 11 (0.48). Jaccard’s coefficient of similarity varied from 0.00 to 0.85, indicative of high level of genetic variation among the genotypes studied. UPGMA cluster analysis indicated three distinct clusters, one comprising all accessions of J. curcas L., while second included six species viz., J. ramanadensis Ramam., J. gossypiifolia L., J. podagrica Hook., J. tanjorensis J. L. Ellis et Saroja J. villosa Wight and J. integerrima Jacq. J. glandulifera Roxb. remained distinct and formed third cluster indicating its higher genetic distinctness from other species. The overall grouping pattern of clustering corresponds well with principal component analysis confirming patterns of genetic diversity observed among the species. The result provides valid guidelines for collection, conservation and characterization of Jatropha genetic resources.


Cluster analysis Genetic diversity  Jatropha spp. Random primers 


  1. Baker JG (1877) Flora of Mauritius and the Seychelles: a description of the flowering plants and ferns of those islands. L. Reeve, LondonGoogle Scholar
  2. Basha SD, Sujatha EM (2007) Inter- and intra-population variability of Jatropha curcas (L.) characterized by RAPD and ISSR markers and development of population-specific SCAR markers. Euphytica 156:375–386CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Beet T, Grant T, David W, Harry W (2002) Fuel cycle green house emissions from alternative fuels in Australian heavy vehicles. Atmos Environ 36:753–763CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Belaj A, Trujilo I, Rosa R, Rallo L, Gimenez MJ (2001) Polymorphism and discrimination capacity of randomly amplified polymorphic markers in an olive germplasm bank. J Am Soc Hort Sci 126:64–71Google Scholar
  5. Bhat KV (2002) Molecular data analysis. In: Proceedings of the short-term training course on molecular marker application in plant breeding. Sept. 26–Oct. 5, 2002, ICAR, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  6. Botstein D, White RL, Skolnick M, Davis RW (1980) Construction of a genetic linkage map in man using restriction fragment length polymorphism. Am J Hum Genet 32:314–331PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Chalmers KJ, Waugh R, Sprent JI, Simons AJ, Powell W (1992) Detection of genetic variation between and within populations of Gliricidia sepium and G. maculata using RAPD markers. Heredity 69:465–472PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Chandhari DC, Joshi DN (1999) Jatropha curcas a multipurpose species for economic prosperity and wasteland development. Adv Plant Sci Res India 9:35–39Google Scholar
  9. Dehgan B (1984) Phylogenetic significance of interspecific hybridization in Jatropha (Euphorbiaceae). Syst Bot 9:467–478CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Dehgan B, Webster GL (1979) Morphology and intergeneric relationship of the genus Jatropha. Univ Calif Publ Bot 74:1–7Google Scholar
  11. Dellaporta SL, Wood J, Hick JB (1983) A plant DNA minipreparation. Version II. Plant Mol Biol Rep 1:19–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Demeke T, Adams RP, Chibbar R (1992) Potential taxonomic use of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) – a case study in Brassica. Theor Appl Genet 84:990–994CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Deshwall RPS, Singh R, Malik K, Randhawa GJ (2005) Assessment of genetic diversity and genetic relationships among 29 populations of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. using RAPD markers. Genet Resour Crop Evol 52:285–292 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Foidl N, Elder P (1997) Agro-industrial exploitation of Jatropha curcas. In: Gubitz GM, Mittelbach M, Trabi M (eds) Biofuel and industrial products from Jatropha curcas. Dvb-Verlag, Graz, AustriaGoogle Scholar
  15. Gillies AC, Navarro C, Lowe AJ, Newton AC, Hernandez M, Wilson J, Cornelius JP (1999) Genetic diversity in meso-American populations of mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) assessed using RAPDs. Heredity 83:722–732PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Ginwal HS, Phartyal SS, Rawat PS, Srivastava RL (2005) Seed source variation in morphology, germination and seedling growth of Jatropha crucas Linn. in Central India. Silvae Genet 54(2):76–80Google Scholar
  17. Henning R (1998) Use of Jatropha curcas – household perspective and its contribution to rural employment creation. In: Proceedings of the regional workshop on the “potential of Jatropha curcas in rural development and environmental protection” May 13–15, Harare, ZimbabweGoogle Scholar
  18. Henry RJ (1997) Practical applications of plant molecular biology. Chapman & Hall, London, pp 59–98Google Scholar
  19. Izumi ME, Kojima M, Matsuda T, Shimizu A, Murakami T, Tanabe, Murakami K (1997) Random amplified polymorphic DNA observed in Eucalyptus by PCR study with random primers. Nucleic Acids Symp 37:167–168Google Scholar
  20. Jaccard P (1908) Nouvelles recherches sur la distribution florale. Bull Soc Vaud Nat 44:223–270Google Scholar
  21. Kapteyn J, Simon JE (2002) The use of RAPDs for assessment of identity, diversity, and quality of Echinacea. In: Janick J, Whipkey A (eds) Trends in new crops and new uses. ASHS Press, Alexandria, VA, pp 509–513Google Scholar
  22. Korbitz W (1999) Biodiesel production in Europe and America: an encouraging prospect. Renew Energy 16(1–4):1078–1083CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Martin G, Mayeux A (1985) Curcas oil (Jatropha curcas L.): a possible fuel. Agric Trop 9:73–75Google Scholar
  24. Nair NV, Nair S, Sreenivasan TV, Mohan M (1999) Analysis of genetic diversity and phylogeny in Saccharum and related genera using RAPD markers. Genet Resour Crop Evol 46:73–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Patil V, Singh K (1991) Oil gloom to oil boom – Jatropha curcas a promising agro-forestry crop. Shree Offset Press, NashikGoogle Scholar
  26. Rohlf FJ (2002) NTSYS-pc: numerical taxonomy system ver. 2.1. Exeter Publishing Ltd., Setauket, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  27. Sarmah P, Barua PK, Sarma RN, Sen P, Deka PC (2007) Genetic diversity among rattan genotypes from India based on RAPD marker analysis. Genet Resour Crop Evol 54:593–600 Google Scholar
  28. Sims REH (2001) Bioenergy – a renewable carbon sink. Renew Energy 22(1–3):31–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Sneath PHA, Sokal RR (1973) Numerical taxonomy. Freeman Press, San Francisco, California, USAGoogle Scholar
  30. Sosinski B, Douches DS (1996) Using polymerase chain reaction based DNA amplification to fingerprint North American potato cultivars. Hort Sci 31:130–133Google Scholar
  31. Srivastava R (1999) Study in variation in morpho-physiological parameters with reference to oil yield and quality in Jatropha curcas Linn. Ph.D. Thesis, Forest Research Institute, Dehra Dun, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  32. Stammers M, Harris J, Evans GM, Hayward MD, Forster JW (1995) Use of random PCR (RAPD) technology to analyze phylogenetic relationships in the Lolium/Festuca complex. Heredity 74:19–27PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Subramanian KA, Singal SK, Saxena M, Singhal S (2005) Utilization of liquid biofuels in automotive diesel engines: an Indian perspective. Biomass Bioenergy 29:65–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Sujatha M, Prabakaran AJ (1997) Characterization and utilization of Indian Jatropha. Indian J Plant Genet Resour 10(1):123–128Google Scholar
  35. Tautz D (1989) Hypervariability of simple sequences as a general source of polymorphic DNA markers. Nucleic Acids Res 17:6463–6471PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Welsh J, McClelland M (1990) Fingerprinting genomes using PCR with arbitrary primers. Nucleic Acids Res 18:7213–7218PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Wilikie SE, Issac PG, Slater RJ (1993) Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers for genetic analysis in Allium. Theor Appl Genet 87:668–672Google Scholar
  38. Williams JGK, Kubelik KJ, Livak KJ, Rafalski JA, Tingey SV (1990) DNA polymorphisms amplified by arbitrary primers are useful genetic markers. Nucleic Acids Res 18:6531–6535PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Yamamoto I, Duich JM (1994) Electrophoretic identification of cross-pollinated bentgrass species and cultivars. Crop Sci 34:792–798CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Zabeau M, Vos P (1993) Selective restriction fragment amplification: a general method for DNA fingerprinting. European Patent Application number 92402629.7. Publication number 0534858A1Google Scholar
  41. Zobel BJ, Talbert J (1984) Applied tree improvement. John Wiley & Co, New York, 503 ppGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Ganesh Ram
    • 1
  • K. T. Parthiban
    • 2
  • R. Senthil Kumar
    • 2
  • V. Thiruvengadam
    • 1
  • M. Paramathma
    • 2
  1. 1.Centre for Plant Breeding and GeneticsTamil Nadu Agricultural UniversityCoimbatoreIndia
  2. 2.Forest College and Research InstituteMettupalayamIndia

Personalised recommendations