Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution

, Volume 55, Issue 2, pp 221–233 | Cite as

Evaluation of the maize (Zea mays L.) diversity on the Archipelago of Madeira

  • Miguel Ângelo A. Pinheiro de Carvalho
  • José Filipe Teixeira Ganança
  • Ivo Abreu
  • Nélia F. Sousa
  • Teresa M. Marques dos Santos
  • Maria Rita Clemente Vieira
  • Mario Motto
Original Paper


The variability of 43 open-pollinated populations of maize (Zea mays L.), representing a wide range of ecological conditions on the Archipelago of Madeira, was evaluated based on the morphological and reproductive traits. Individual data of 41 traits related to earliness, plant and tassel structure and the shape of the ear and grain were analysed using multivariate analysis. The populations belonging to two major maize varieties were grouped into four groups by their degree of dissimilarity, based on discriminant analysis. The dissimilarity of these groups was confirmed by the values of the Tukey test. The racial rank of these groups was proposed and a brief description of the maize landraces was presented. This work represents the first morphological characterization and analysis of diversity of maize germplasm for the Archipelago of Madeira where the traditional agricultural practices are still keeping this Portuguese region free from corn hybrids. The description of the Madeiran corn landraces allows us to preserve the existing corn biodiversity and could be used for their registration as conservation landraces or for conservation and breeding proposes worldwide.


Landraces identification Maize germplasm Morphological characterization Zea mays L. 



Portuguese Foundation for the Science and Technology (FCT, Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia) has sponsored this work, through the Centre of Macaronesian Studies (CEM) and the project POCTI no35003/AGR/2001. The Authors are grateful to the Madeiran farmers who assisted with collection of maize samples.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Miguel Ângelo A. Pinheiro de Carvalho
    • 1
  • José Filipe Teixeira Ganança
    • 1
  • Ivo Abreu
    • 1
  • Nélia F. Sousa
    • 1
  • Teresa M. Marques dos Santos
    • 1
  • Maria Rita Clemente Vieira
    • 2
  • Mario Motto
    • 3
  1. 1.ISOPlexis Germplasm Bank, Centre of Studies for MacaronesiaUniversity of MadeiraFunchalPortugal
  2. 2.Institute of BotanyUniversity of CoimbraCoimbraPortugal
  3. 3.Institute of Crop CulturesBergamoItaly

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