Genetic diversity and similarity of pear (Pyrus L.) cultivars native to East Asia revealed by SSR (simple sequence repeat) markers

  • Lu Bao
  • Kunsong Chen
  • Dong Zhang
  • Yufen Cao
  • Toshiya Yamamoto
  • Yuanwen Teng
Original Paper

Abstract

Simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were used to assess genetic diversity and relationship of Pyrus L. cultivars native mainly to East Asia. A total of 168 putative alleles were generated from six primer-pairs (BGA35, KU10, BGT23b, NH004a, NH011b and NH015a). All the SSR markers showed a high level of genetic polymorphism with a mean of 28 putative alleles per locus and the heterozygosity of 0.63. The Dice’s similarity coefficient between cultivars ranged from 0.02 to 0.98 and Occidental pears generally had low affinities to Asian pears. Ten major groups were generated from all the accessions by UPGMA clusters analysis. Chinese sand pears consisted of four groups with Chinese white pears and Japanese pears, of which Chinese sand pears occurred in all four groups, presenting a large genetic diversity, Chinese white pears were included in three groups, and Japanese pears only fell into one group. In the dendrogram, Chinese sand pears and Chinese white pears did not form discrete group, even subgroups. Some Japanese pear cultivars had high affinities to Chinese sand pear cultivars. These findings supports the authors’ previous viewpoints of Chinese white pears as a variety or an ecotype of Chinese sand pears (P. pyrifolia var. sinensis (Lindley) Y. Teng et K. Tanabe) and the progenitor of Japanese pears coming from China. Cultivars of P. ussuriensis Maxim. were clustered together with one clone of P. hondoensis Nakai et Kikuchi, a relative species of P. ussuriensis. Cultivars of P. communis L. and other Occidental species formed three independent groups and were distant from most Asian pears, except for P. betulaefolia Bge.

Keywords

Genetic relationship Microsatellites Pyrus SSR 

References

  1. Bailey LH (1917) Pyrus. In: Standard cyclopedia of horti-␣culture, Vol V. Macmillan, New York, pp 2865–2878Google Scholar
  2. Bell RL (1990) Pears (Pyrus). In: Moore JN, Ballington JR (ed) Genetic resources of temperate fruit and nut crops. Acta Hortic 290:657–697Google Scholar
  3. Botta R, Akkaa A, Casavecchia V (1998) Identification of pear cultivars by molecular markers. Acta Hortic 457:63–70Google Scholar
  4. Brant J (1991) Fast and sensitive silver staining of DNA in polyacrylamide gels. Anal Biochem 196:80–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Challice JS and Westwood MN (1973) Numerical taxonomic studies of the genus Pyrus using both chemical and botanical characters. Bot J Linn Soc 67:121–148Google Scholar
  6. Chen R (1937) Taxonomy of the trees in China. Chinese Society for Agricultural Sciences (in Chinese), ChinaGoogle Scholar
  7. Cipriani G, Lot G, Huang WG, Marrazzo MT, Peterlunger E, Testolin R (1999) AC/GT and AG/CT microsatellite repeats in peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch): isolation, characterization and cross-species amplification in Prunus. Theor Appl Genet 99:65–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Dellaporta SL, Wood J, Hicks JB (1983) A plant DNA minipreparation: version II. Plant Mol Biol Rep 1:19–21Google Scholar
  9. Gregorius HR, Krauhausen J, Muller-Starck G (1986) Spatial and temporal genetic differentiation among the seed in stand Fagus sylvatica L. Heredity 57:255–262Google Scholar
  10. Guilford P, Prakash S, Zhu JM, Rikkerink E, Gardiner S, Bassett H, Forster R (1997) Microsatllites in Malus domestica (apple): abundance, polymorphism and cultivar identification. Theor Appl Genet 96:1069–1076Google Scholar
  11. Hokanson SC, Lamboy WF, Szewc-McFadden AK, McFerson JR (2001) Microsatellite (SSR) variation in a collection of Malus (apple) species and hybrids. Euphytica 118:218–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hokanson SC, Szewc-McFadden AK, Lamboy WF, McFerson JR (1998) Microsatellite (SSR) markers reveal genetic identities. Genetic diversity and relationships in a Malus × domestica Borkh. Core subset collection. Theor Appl Genet 97:671–683CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hu CC (1937) The variety and distribution of pears in China. J Hortic Assoc Japan 8:235–251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Iketani H, Manabe T, Matsuta N, Akihama T, Hayashi T (1998) Incongruence between RFLPs of chloroplast DNA and morphological classification in East Asia pear (Pyrus spp.). Genet Resour Crop Evol 45:533–539CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Jang JT, Tanabe K, Tamura F, Banno K (1992) Identification of Pyrus species by leaf peroxidase isozyme pheotypes (in Japanese with English summary). J Jpn Soc Hortic Sci 61:273–286Google Scholar
  16. Kajiura I and Sato Y (1990) Recent progress in Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) breeding and descriptions of cultivars based on literature review (in Japanese with English summary). Bull Fruit Tree Res Station Extra 1:1–329Google Scholar
  17. Kikuchi A (1946) Assessment of Chinese pear species and cultivars (in Japanese). Collected Records, Hortic Res Faculty Agr Kyoto, Japan 3:1–11Google Scholar
  18. Kikuchi A (1948) Horticulture of fruit trees (in Japanese), Vol 1. Yokendo, TokyoGoogle Scholar
  19. Kim CS, Lee GP, Han DH, Ryu KH, Lee CH (2000) SCARs markers derived from RAPD for cultivar identification in Pyrus pyrifolia. J Kor Soc Hortic Sci 41:125–128Google Scholar
  20. Kimura T, Sawamura Y, Kotobuki K, Matsuta N, Hayashi T, Ban Y, Yamamoto T (2003) Parentage analysis in pear cultivars characterized by SSR markers. J Jpn Soc Hortic Sci 72(3):182–189Google Scholar
  21. Kimura T, Shi Y, Shoda M, Kotobuki K, Matsuta N, Hayashi T, Ban Y, Yamamoto T (2002) Identification of Asian pear varieties by SSR analysis. Breed Sci 52:115–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Lin B, Shen D (1983) Studies on the germplasmic characteristics of Pyrus by use of isozymic patterns (in Chinese with English summary). Acta Agric Univ Zhejiang China 9:235–243 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  23. Lin S, Fang C, Song W, Zhang F (2002) AFLP molecular markers of species of Pyrus in China. Acta Hortic 587:233–236Google Scholar
  24. Miller JC, Tanskley SD (1990) RFLP analysis of phylogenetic relationships and genetic variation in the genus Lycopersicum. Theor Appl Genet 80:437–448Google Scholar
  25. Monte-Corvo L, Cabrita L, Oliveira C, Leitão J (2000) Assessment of genetic relationships among Pyrus species and cultivars using AFLP and RAPD markers. Genet Resour Crop Evol 47:257–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Nei M and Li WH (1979) Mathematical model for studying genetic variation in terms of restriction endonucleases. Proc Natl Acad Sci 76:5269–5273PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Oliveira CM, Mota M, Monte-Corvo L, Goulao L and Silva DL (1999) Molecular typing of Pyrus based on RAPD markers. Sci Hortic 79:163–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Powell W, Morgante M, Andre C, Hanafey M, Vogel J, Tingley S, Rafalski A (1996) The comparison of RFLP, RAPD, AFLP and SSR (microsatellite) markers for germplasm analysis. Mol Breed 2:225–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Pu F, Wang Y (1963) Pomology of China. Pears, Vol 3. Shanghai Sci Technol Press, Shanghai, China (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  30. Pu F, Huang L, Sun B, Li S (1989) Pear cultivars. Agriculture Press, Beijing (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  31. Rohlf FJ (1998) Numerical taxonomy and multivariate analysis system. Version 2.0. Exeter Software, Setauket, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  32. Rubtsov GA (1944) Geographical distribution of the genus Pyrus and trends and factors in its evolution. Am Nat 78:358–366CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Sambrook J, Fritsch EF, Maniatis T (2001) Molecular cloning: a laboratory manual, 3rd edn. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  34. Shimura I (1988) Nashi (Pear). In: Heibonsha’s world encyclopedia, Vol 36. Heibonsha, Tokyo (in Japanese) pp 354–372Google Scholar
  35. Shirai K (1929) Shokubutsu toraikou. Okashoin, Tokyo (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  36. Sosinski B, Gannavarapu M, Hager LD, Beck LE, King GJ, Ryder CD, Rajapakse S, Baid WV, Ballard RE, Abbott AG (2000) Characterization of microsatellite markers in peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch]. Theor Appl Genet 101:421–428CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Teng Y, Tanabe K (2004) Reconsideration on the origin of cultivated pears native to East Asia. Acta Hortic 634:175–182Google Scholar
  38. Teng Y, Tanabe K, Tamura F, Itai A (2001) Genetic relationships of pear cultivars in Xinjiang, China as measured by RAPD markers. J Hortic Sci Biotech 76: 771–779Google Scholar
  39. Teng Y, Tanabe K, Tamura F, Itai A (2002) Genetic relationships of Pyrus species and cultivars native to East Asia revealed by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA markers. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 127: 262–270Google Scholar
  40. Teramoto S, Kano-Murakami Y, Hori M, Kamiyama K (1994) ‘DNA finger-printing’ to distinguish cultivar and parental relation of Japanese pear. Jpn Soc Hortic Sci 63: 17–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Yamamoto T, Kimura T, Sawamura Y, Kotobuki K, Ban Y, Hayashi T, Matsuta N (2001) SSRs isolated from apple can identify polymorphism and genetic diversity in pear. Theor Appl Genet 102: 865–870CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Yamamoto T, Kimura T, Sawamura Y, Manabe T, Kotobuki K, Hayashi T, Ban Y, Matsuta N (2002) Simple sequence repeats for genetic analysis in pear. Euphytica 124: 129–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Yang RC, Yeh FC (1993) Multilocus structure in Pinus contorta Dougl. Theor Appl Genet 87:568–576CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Yu T (1979) Taxonomy of the fruit tree in China. Agriculture Press, Beijing (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  45. Zhebentyayeva TN, Reighard GL, Gorina VM and Abbott AG (2003) Simple sequence repeat (SSR) analysis for assessment of genetic variability in apricot germplasm. Theor Appl Genet 106:435–444PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lu Bao
    • 1
  • Kunsong Chen
    • 1
  • Dong Zhang
    • 1
  • Yufen Cao
    • 2
  • Toshiya Yamamoto
    • 3
  • Yuanwen Teng
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of HorticultureZhejiang University/the State Agricultural Ministry Laboratory of Horticultural Plant Growth Development & BiotechnologyHangzhouChina
  2. 2.Research Institute of PomologyChinese Academy of Agricultural SciencesXingchengChina
  3. 3.National Institute of Fruit Tree ScienceTsukubaJapan

Personalised recommendations