Advertisement

Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution

, Volume 54, Issue 2, pp 437–443 | Cite as

Induction and assessment of morpho-biochemical mutants in Artemisia pallens Bess.

  • Kanti RekhaEmail author
  • Anima Langer
Brief Communication

Abstract

Artemisia pallens Bess. is a low volume and high value essential oil plant used in perfumery, cosmetic and flavouring industries. On account of the failure of conventional procedures to induce variability in species, mutation techniques have been tried in our experiments. Dry and viable seeds (moisture content 8%) of homozygous pure breeding lines were subjected to 150–500 Gy doses of gamma rays and 0.01–0.1% ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS) for 8 h. Desirable qualitative mutants were recovered from segregating M2 generation (4,283 plants scored) raised as single plant progenies. The spectrum of morphological mutants included late and early flowering types; bushy and high yielding types; tall and more capitula-producing types and high oil and high davanone yielding types. These were raised through M3 families to evaluate stability and transmission of mutant characters. As such out of 15 different types selected in M2, only 11 types bred true to their characteristic variability. Based on their performance, the mutants were characterised depending upon their distinguishing features. Davanone, the main component of oil showed the maximum increase (64.22% against 54.64% in control) in mutant ‘S–5’ recovered from exposure with 250 Gy γ-rays. Mutant ‘E-6’ was economically most viable having increased oil biosynthesis (0.36% against 0.22% in control) and hence yields higher oil per unit area than the parental control (isolated from 0.05% EMS treatment).

Keywords

Artemisia pallens Characterisation Davanone EMS γ-rays Mutants 

Notes

Acknowledgement

The first author thanks Dr A.K. Dhar Chairman, Plant Breeding and Crop Husbandry Division and Dr G.N. Qazi Director, Regional Research Laboratory, Jammu for providing facilities and their keen interest during course of study.

References

  1. Basu RK (1966) The induction of early flowering mutants in Corchorus olitorius L. Rad Bot 6:39–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Conger BV, Skinner LW, Skold LN (1976) Variability for components of yield induced on soyabeans by seed treatments with gamma radiation, fission, neutrons and ethyl methane sulphonate. Crop Sci 16(2):233–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ehrenberg L, Gustafsson A, Lundquist U (1961) Viable mutants induced in barley by ionizing radiations and chemical mutagens. Hereditas 47:243–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Farooqi AA, Dasharatha Rao ND, Devaiah KA, Ravi Kumar RL (1990) Genetic variability in davana (Artemisia pallens). Ind Perfum 34(1):42–42Google Scholar
  5. Gaikwad NB, Kothekar VS (2003) Induced morphological mutants in Lens culinaris. J Cytol Genet 4(NS):99–105Google Scholar
  6. Goldon SA (1957) The effect of ionizing radiations on plants: biochemical and physiological aspects. Quart Rev Biol 32:3–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Gunckel JE, Sparrow AH, Morrow IB, Christensen E (1953) Vegetative and floral development of irradiated and non-irradiated plants of Tradescantia paludosa. Am J Bot 40:317–332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Hefendehl FW, Murray MJ (1976) Genetic aspects of biosynthesis of natural odors. Lloydia 39(1):39–52Google Scholar
  9. Hegnauer R (1975) Secondary metabolites and crop plants. In: Frankel OH, Hawkes JG (eds) Crop genetic resources for today and tomorrow. Cambridge University Press, London, pp 249–255Google Scholar
  10. Jana MK (1963) X-ray induced mutants of Phaseolus mungo L. II. Sterility and vital mutants. Genet Iber 14:71–104Google Scholar
  11. Jeffrey C (2001) Compositae (Asteraceae). In: Hanelt P, Institute of plant genetics and crop plant research (eds) Mansfeld’s encyclopedia of agricultural and horticultural crops, vol 4. Springer, Berlin, pp 2035–2145Google Scholar
  12. Jhunjhunwalla A (2006) Market report of natural essential oils of Indian origin (as on 4th March, 2006). Ind Perfum 50(1):27Google Scholar
  13. Kak SN, Kaul BL (1980) Radiation induced useful mutants of Japanese mint (Mentha arvensis). Z. Pflanzen- zϋchtung 85:170–174Google Scholar
  14. Kaul BL, Singh C, Zutshi U, Dhar KL (1973) Radiation effects on growth and concentration of total alkaloids in Datura metel L. Ind J Exp Biol 11:133–134Google Scholar
  15. Levy A (1982) Natural and induced genetic variation in the biosynthesis of alkaloids and secondary metabolites. In: Improvement of oil seed and industrial crops by induced mutations. IAEA, Vienna, pp 213–222Google Scholar
  16. Mergen F, Johnson TS (1964) Effect of ionizing radiation in seed germination and seedling growth of Pinus rigida (MU). Rad Bot 4:417–427CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Miura K, Hashimoto T, Yamaguchi H (1974) Effect of gamma radiation on cell elongation and auxin level in Avena coleoptiles. Rad Bot 14:207–215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Mungikar AM (1997) An introduction to Biometry. Saraswati Printing Press, Motikaranja AurangabadGoogle Scholar
  19. Pawar SE, Wanjari KB (1994) Breeding high yielding varieties of pigeon pea, mungbean and black gram using induced mutations. In: DAE/BRNS Symp. Nuclear Applications in Agriculture, Animal Husbandry and Food Preservation. NRL IARI, New Delhi. pp 7–8Google Scholar
  20. Pawar SE, Thakar RG, Joshu DC (1979) Early maturing bold seeded mutant in pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan L). Millsp. Curr Sci 48:648–645Google Scholar
  21. Rekha K (1999) Mutation studies in Artemisia pallens Wall. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Jammu, JammuGoogle Scholar
  22. Rekha K, Kak SN (1997) Radiation induced variability in Artemisia pallens Wall. in M1 generation. J Econ Tax Bot 21(2):463–466Google Scholar
  23. Rekha K, Kak SN, Langer A (2000) EMS induced variability in Artemisia pallens Wall. Indian J Plant Genet Resour 13(1):37–41Google Scholar
  24. Romani RJ (1966) Biochemical response of plant systems to larger doses of ionizing radiations. Rad Bot 6:87–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Sadowska A (1975) Effect of gamma ionizing radiation upon the yield of peppermint and on the quality of its essential oil. Proc. Polish Acad. Sci. Warsaw, pp 50Google Scholar
  26. Sengupta S, Datta AK (2004) Induced protein rich late flowering and seed coat colour mutants in sesame (Sesamum indicum L.). J Cytol Genet 5(NS):27–31Google Scholar
  27. Thakur RS, Misra LN (1989) Essential oils of Indian Artemisia. Proc. 11th International Congr. Essent. Oils, Frag. And Flavours, New Delhi, pp 127–135Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Plant Breeding and Crop Husbandry DivisionRegional Research LaboratoryJammu TawiIndia
  2. 2.Department of BotanyUniversity of JammuJammuIndia

Personalised recommendations