Phylogenetic relationships among cultivated types of Brassica rapa L. em. Metzg. as revealed by AFLP analysis
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The cultivated types of Brassica rapa L. em. Metzg. consist of morphologically distinct subspecies such as turnip, turnip rape, Chinese cabbage, pak choi and pot herb mustard which are classified as ssp. rapa, ssp. oleifera, ssp. pekinensis, ssp. chinensis and ssp. nipposinica (syn. ssp. japonica), respectively. We attempted to elucidate the phylogenetic relationships among the cultivated types of B. rapa. Thirty-two accessions from the Eurasian Continent were analyzed using AFLP markers with a cultivar of B. oleracea as an outgroup. In total, 455 bands were detected in the ingroup and 392 (86.6%) were polymorphic. The Neighbor-Joining tree based on the AFLP markers indicated that the accessions of B. rapa were congregated into two groups according to geographic origin. One group consisted of ssp. rapa and ssp. oleifera of Europe and Central Asia and the other included all the subspecies of East Asia. Our results suggest that cultivars from East Asia were probably derived from a primitive cultivated type, which originated in Europe or in Central Asia and migrated to East Asia. This primitive cultivated type was probably a common ancestor of ssp. rapa and ssp. oleifera. The Neighbor-Joining tree also shows that leafy vegetables in East Asia such as ssp. pekinensis, ssp. chinensis and ssp. nipposinica were differentiated several times from the distinct cultivars of ssp. oleifera in East Asia.
Key wordsAmplified fragment length polymorphism Brassica rapa Metzg. Crop evolution Phylogenetic analysis
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