Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution

, Volume 52, Issue 1, pp 97–109 | Cite as

Contrasted genetic diversity and differentiation among Mediterranean populations of Ficus carica L.: A study using mtDNA RFLP

  • B. KhadariEmail author
  • C. Grout
  • S. Santoni
  • F. Kjellberg


Patterns of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation revealed by RFLP were investigated for 63 individuals of the common fig, Ficus carica L., in 15 supposedly natural populations throughout the Mediterranean basin. Fifteen haplotypes were detected using one restriction enzyme (HindIII) and four probes (atpα, coxIII, nad3rpsl2 and rps12). Mitochondrial diversity within populations varied from monomorphic to entirely polymorphic and population differentiation was high (FST = 0.323, P < 10−5). Seven groups of populations were defined on the basis of genetic and geographic proximity and lead to significant pairwise FST estimates except for the Corsican group which was similar to the Moroccan one. Fig populations were structured into three clusters: Balearic, West and East Mediterranean gene pools. The low diversity and strong differentiation of the Balearic populations strongly supports an ancient origin and the presence of natural populations in this area before domestication. Significant genetic differentiation between the West and East Mediterranean probably also reflects a diversification of the common fig over the Mediterranean basin preceding domestication. In contrast, Italian island populations seem to result from introduced cultivated fig since they present continental haplotypes. Our study represents a first mtDNA polymorphism survey and these indications should be confirmed by analysing local cultivated forms from the Baleares and from Italian islands and further natural populations from the East Mediterranean.

Key words

Common fig Domestication Ficus carica L. Genetic structure mtDNA RFLP Natural population Subspontaneous forms 


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Copyright information

© Springer 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • B. Khadari
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • C. Grout
    • 1
    • 3
  • S. Santoni
    • 3
  • F. Kjellberg
    • 4
  1. 1.Conservatoire Botanique National Méditerranéen de Porquerolles, Parc National de Port-CrosHyères cedexFrance
  2. 2.UMR Biologie du Développement des Espèces Pérennes Cultivées (BEPC), INRAMontpellier cedex 1France
  3. 3.UMR Diversité et Génome des Plantes Cultivées INRAMontpellier cedex 1France
  4. 4.Centre d’Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive, CNRSMontpellier Cedex 5France

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