Advertisement

Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution

, Volume 52, Issue 3, pp 249–265 | Cite as

Towards a ‘red list’ for crop plant species

  • Karl Hammer
  • Korous Khoshbakht
Article

Abstract

An attempt is made toward the application of IUCN criteria and Red List Categories to agricultural and horticultural plants (excluding ornamentals). The main sources for this study were Mansfeld’s Encyclopedia (2001) and the IUCN Red List of threatened plants (2001). About 200 threatened cultivated plants are considered and presented in the respective lists, among them completely extinct crop plants such as Anacyclus officinarum and Bromus mango. The information available about neglected and underutilized crop plants still lags behind that about wild plants, especially at the species level, and more studies are required. On the other hand studies of major crops at the infraspecific level, are very advanced and can serve as models for investigating the wild ones.

Keywords

Angiospermae Crops Extinction IUCN criteria Red list Threatened plants 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Akeroyd J. and Wyse Jackson P. 1995. A Handbook for Botanical Gardens on the Reintroduction of Plants to the Wild. BGCI.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Anonymous. 2000. The National Plant Collections Directory. National Council for the Conservation of Plants and Gardens. The Stable CourtyardWisley Garden, Woking, Surrey.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Beridze, R.K., Hanelt, P., Kruse, J. 1982Report of a travel to the Georgian SSR 1981 for the collection of indigenous material of cultivated plantsKulturpflanze30203213Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Beuttel, E. 1951Silphion, eine berühmte Heilpflanze des AltertumsDeutsche Apotheker-Zeitung23409410Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bowles, M.L.Whelan, C.J. eds. 1999Restoration of Endangered SpeciesCambridge University PressCambridgeUKGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Briggs, J.D., Leigh, J.H. 1996Rare or Threatened Australian PlantsCSIRO PublicationsMelbourneAustraliaGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Büchel, K.,  et al. 2003Hirsenschlingel (Lat. Viciola bistortaindon. Sulor-Sulor)Beck, Ch. eds. PfefferlandGeschichten aus der Welt der GewürzePeter Hammer VerlagWuppertale108132Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Cadotte, M.W., Frank, R., Reza, L., Lovett-Doust, J. 2002Tree and shrub diversity and abundance in fragmented littoral forests of Southeastern MadagasgarBiodivers. Conserv.1113361417CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Caro, T., O’Doherty, G. 1999On the use of surrogate species in conservationConserv. Biol.13805814CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Cruz, A.W. 1972El Bromus mangoplanta desaparecidaIdesia2127131Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Diamond, J.M. 1987Extant unless proven extinct? Orextinct unless proven extant?Conserv. Biol.17779CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ekim T., Koyuncu M., Erik S. and Ilarslan (eds.) 1989. Türkiyenin tehlike altindaki: nadir ve endemic bitk: turleri. Series 18. Ankara, 227pp.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Falk, D.A.Holsinger, K.E. eds. 1991Genetics and Conservation of Rare PlantsOxford University PressNew YorkGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Gigon, A., Lagenauer, R., Meier, C., Nievergelt, B. 2000Blue lists of threatened species with stabilized or increasing abundance: a new instrument for conservationConserv. Biol.14402413CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Gladis, T., Hammer, K., Roose, K., Knüpffer, H. 2001The contribution of tropical home gardens to in situ conservation of plant genetic resources – examples from Guatemala and VietnamSchriften Genet. Resour.163548Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hammer, K. 1984Das DomestikationssyndromKulturpflanze321134Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hammer, K. 1990Breeding system and phylogenetic relationships in Secale LBiol. Zbl.1094550Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hammer, K. 1991Checklists and germplasm collecting. FAO/ IBPGRIPlant Genet. Resour. Newslett.851517Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hammer, K. 1998Agrarbiodiversität und pflanzegenetische Ressourcen – Herausforderung and LösungsansatzSchriften Genet. Resour.1098Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hammer, K. 1999Species diversity of wild relatives of crop plantsBot. Lithuan. Suppl.23133Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Hammer, K., Cifarelli, S., Perrino, P., Laghetti, G. 2004Dynamics of Rubus ulmifolius Schott var. anoplothyrsus Sudre and other cultivated blackberries in ItalyGenet. Resour. Crop Evol.51237239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Hammer, K., Heller, J. 1997Promoting the conservation and use of underutilized and neglected cropsSchriften Genet. Resour.8223227Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Hammer, K., Heller, J., Engels, J. 2001Monographs on underutilized and neglected cropsGenet. Resour. Crop Evol.4835CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Hammer, K., Laghetti, G., Cifarelli, S., Spahillari, M., Perrino, P. 2000Pimpinella anisoides BrigantiGenet. Resour. Crop Evol.47223225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Hammer, K., Laghetti, G., Perrino, P. 1997Proposal to make the island of Linosa/Italy as a centre for on-farm conservation of plant genetic resourcesGenet. Resour. Crop Evol.44127134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Hammer, K., Skolimowska, E., Knüpffer, H. 1987Vorarbeiten zur monographischen Darstellung von Wildpflanzensortimenten: Secale LKulturpflanze35135177Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Hanelt P. 2001a. Amaranthaceae. In: Hanelt P. and Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research pp. 265–284.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Hanelt P. 2001b. Alliaceae. In: Hanelt P. and Institute of Plant Genetics ad Crop Plant Research pp. 2250–2269.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Hanelt P. and Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research (eds) 2001. Mansfeld’s Encyclopedia of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops. 6 vols. Springer, Berlin.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Harlan J.R. 1970. Evolution of cultivated plants. In: Frankel O.H. and Bennett E. (eds.), Genetic Resources in Plants— Their Exploration and Evaluation. Oxford pp. 19–32.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Harlan, J.R., De Wet, J.M.J. 1971Towards a rational classification of cultivated plantsTaxon20509517Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Hermann, M.Heller, J. eds. 1997Andean roots and tubers: ahipaarracachamaca and yaconIPGRIIPK, RomeGatersleben256Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Hill, K.D. 1995Infrageneric relationship, phylogeny, and geography of the genus Cycas (Cycadaceae)Vorster, P. eds. Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Cycad Biology held in PretoriaSouth Africa5–9 July 1993Cycad. SocSouth AfricaStellenbosch139162256 pp.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Hoang, H.-Dz., Knüpffer, H., Hammer, K. 1997Additional notes to the checklist of Korean cultivated plants (5). Consolidated summary and indexesGenet. Resour. Crop Evol.44349391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Hügin, G. 1991Hausgärten zwischen Feldberg und KaiserstuhlBeih. Veröff. Naturschutz Landschaftspflege Bad. – Württ.591176Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Humphries, J.C. 1979A revision of the genus Anacyclus L. (Compositae: Anthemideae)Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.), Bot.783142Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Iltis, H.H., Doebley, J.F., Guzman, R., Pazy, B. 1979Zea diploperennis (Gramineae): a new teosinte from MexicoScience203186188Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Imboden, C. 1989From the Directors desk: green lists instead of Red Books?World Birdwatch92Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    IUCN 1994. IUCN Red List Categories, IUCN species survival commission, Gland. International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, Gland21pp.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    IUCN 2000. Confirming the Global Extinction Crisis. A call for international action on the most authoritative global assessment of species loss is released. http://www.iucn.org/red list/2000/news.html. Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    IUCN 2001. IUCN Red List Categories: Version 3.1. Prepared by the IUCN Species Survival Commission. IUCNGlandSwitzerland.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Jäger, L.D. 2004Die kultivierten Nutzpflanzen der Äcker und Gärten deutscher MuseenDiplomarbeitUni-Kassel256Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Jones, G., Valamoti, S., Charles, M. 2000Early crop diversity: a new ,,glume” wheat from northern GreeceVeg. Hist. Archaeobot.9133146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Keith H.G. 1965. A preliminary checklist of the Libyan flora2 vols. London.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Keller J. 2001. Orchidaceae. In: Hanelt and Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research 2303–2316.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Kislev, M.E. 1980Triticum parvicoccum sp. nov., the oldest naked wheatIsr. J. Bot.2897Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Kühn, F., Hammer, K. 1979Das Ausklingen der Brandrodungskultur in ZentraleuropaKulturpflanze27165173Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Kupzow, A.J. 1980Theoretical basis of plant domesticationTAG576574CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 50.
    Laghetti, G., Hammer, K., Cifarelli, S., Branca, F., Diederichsen, A., Perrino, P. 2002Collecting of crop genetic resources in Egadi archipelago and southern SicilyPlant Genet. Resour. Newslett.1323947Google Scholar
  50. 49.
    Laghetti, G., Piergiovanni, A.R., Galasso, I., Hammer, K., Perrino, P. 2000Single-flowerd vetch (Vicia articulata Hornem.): a relic crop in ItalyGenet. Resour. Crop Evol.47461465CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Lawler, L.J. 1994Ethnobotany of OrchidaceaeArditti, J. eds. Orchid Biology: Reviews and Perspectives, Vol. 3Comstock Publ. AssIthaca27194Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Leme, E.M.C. 2003Nominal extinction and the taxonomists’ responsibility: the example of Bromeliaceae in BrazilTaxon52299302Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Lester, R.N., Niakan, L. 1986Origin and domestication of the scarlet eggplantSolanum aethiopicum L. from S. anguivi LamD’Arcy, W.G. eds. Solanaceae: Biology and SystematicsColombia Min. PressNew York433456Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Lucas, G., Synge, H. 199633,730 threatened plantsPlant Talk Oct.963032Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Mace G.M. 1995. Classification of threatened species and its role in conservation planning. In: Lawton J.H. and May R.M. (eds), Extinction Rates. Oxford University Press, pp. 197–213.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Maunder, M. 1992Plant reintroduction: an overviewBiodivers. Conserv.15160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Natho G. 2001. Proteaceae. In: Hanelt P. and Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research (eds.),pp. 928–933.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    National Research Council. 1989. Lost Crops of the Incas: Little-known Plants of the Andes with Promise for Worldwide Cultivation. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    National Research Council. 1996. Lost Crops of Africa. Vol. 1: Grains. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  60. 79.
    Ochoa, C. 2000Solanum hygrothermicum an endangered cultivated potato speciesEcon. Bot.54228233Google Scholar
  61. 60.
    Ochoa, C., Ugent, D. 2001Maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp., Brassicaceae): A nutritious root crop of the central AndesEcon. Bot.55344345Google Scholar
  62. 61.
    Ohwi J. 1965. Flora of Japan. Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  63. 62.
    Olson, M.E., Razafimandimbison, S.G. 2000Moringa hildebrandtii (Moringaceae): a tree extinct in the wild but preserved by indigenous horticultural practices in MadagascarAdansonia22217221Google Scholar
  64. 63.
    Pantoner, D.V., Pavlik, B.M., Kelly, R.B. 1995The reproductive attitudes of an endangered plant as compared to a weedy congenerBiol. Conserv.71305311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 64.
    Pistorius, R. 1997Scientists, Plants and Politics. A History of Plant Genetic Resources MovementIPGRIRomeGoogle Scholar
  66. 65.
    Pistrick, K. 1996Maramureş und Westgebirge. Erhaltungsgebiete von Kulturpflanzenvielfalt in RumänienArche Noah (Schiltern)4412Google Scholar
  67. 66.
    Pistrick, K., Mal’cev, I.I. 1998Expedition to the South-western Hissar montains (Southern Uzbekistan) for collecting plant genetic resources in 1995Genet. Resour. Crop Evol.45225233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 67.
    Rabinowitz, D. 1981Seven forms of raritySynge, H. eds. The Biological Aspects of Rare Plant ConservationWisleyChichester, UK205218Google Scholar
  69. 68.
    Schnabel, H. 1996Mit Silbermünzen aufgewogenMoney Trend (Internationales Münzmagazin)124243Google Scholar
  70. 69.
    Scholz H. and Mos M. 1994. Status und kurze Geschichte des ausgestorbenen Kulturgetreides Bromus mango E. Desv. und die Genese des Bromus secalinus L. Flora 189: 215–222.Google Scholar
  71. 70.
    Schultze-Motel J. 1966. Verzeichnis forstlich kultivierter Pflanzenarten. Kulturpflanze Beiheft 4.Google Scholar
  72. 71.
    Simberloff, D. 1998Flagships, Umbrellas and Keystones: is single species management passé in the landscape eraConserv. Biol.83247257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 72.
    Upreti, B.R., Upreti, Y.G. 2002Factors leading to agro-biodiversity loss in developing countries: The case of NepalBiodivers. Conserv.1116071621CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 73.
    Valkoun J., Waines J.G. and Konopka J. 1998. Current geographical distribution and habitat of wild wheats and barley. In: Damania A.B. et al. (eds), The Origin of Agriculture and Crop Domestication. pp. 293–299.Google Scholar
  75. 74.
    Van Treuren, R., Bijlsma, K., Van Delden, W., Ouborg, N.J. 1990The significance of genetic erosion in the process of extinctionHeredity66181189Google Scholar
  76. 75.
    Weber H.E. 2001. Rosaceae (Rubus). In: Hanelt P. and Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research.Google Scholar
  77. 76.
    Xu, W.-J., Wang, B.-W., Cui, K.-M. 2004RAPD and SCAR markers linked to sex determination of Eucommia ulmoides OlivEuphytica136233238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Zaprjagaeva, V.I. 1975CrataegusOvčinnikov, P.N. eds. Flora Tadžikskoj SSR T 4NaukaLeningrad353372Google Scholar
  79. 77.
    Zimmerer, K.S. 1992The loss and maintenance of nature crops in mountain agricultureGeojournal276172CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of KasselWitzenhausenGermany
  2. 2.Environmental Science Research InstituteUniversity of Shahid BeheshtiIran

Personalised recommendations