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Glycoconjugate Journal

, Volume 23, Issue 1–2, pp 5–17 | Cite as

Role of sialic acid-containing molecules in paramyxovirus entry into the host cell: A minireview

  • Enrique Villar
  • Isabel Muñoz Barroso
Mini Review

Abstract

Sialic acid-containing compounds play a key role in the initial steps of the paramyxovirus life cycle. As enveloped viruses, their entry into the host cell consists of two main events: binding to the host cell and membrane fusion. Virus adsorption occurs at the surface of the host cell with the recognition of specific receptor molecules located at the cell membrane by specific viral attachment proteins. The viral attachment protein present in some paramyxoviruses (Respirovirus, Rubulavirus and Avulavirus) is the HN glycoprotein, which binds to cellular sialic acid-containing molecules and exhibits sialidase and fusion promotion activities. Gangliosides of the gangliotetraose series bearing the sialic acid N-acetylneuraminic (Neu5Ac) on the terminal galactose attached in α2-3 linkage, such as GD1a, GT1b, and GQ1b, and neolacto-series gangliosides are the major receptors for Sendai virus. Much less is known about the receptors for other paramyxoviruses than for Sendai virus. Human parainfluenza viruses 1 and 3 preferentially recognize oligosaccharides containing N-acetyllactosaminoglycan branches with terminal Neu5Acα2-3Gal. In the case of Newcastle disease virus, has been reported the absence of a specific pattern of the gangliosides that interact with the virus. Additionally, several works have described the use of sialylated glycoproteins as paramyxovirus receptors. Accordingly, the design of specific sialic acid analogs to inhibit the sialidase and/or receptor binding activity of viral attachment proteins is an important antiviral strategy. In spite of all these data, the exact nature of paramyxovirus receptors, apart from their sialylated nature, and the mechanism(s) of viral attachment to the cell surface are poorly understood.

Keywords

Viral receptors Paramyxovirus Gangliosides Sialidase HN glycoprotein 

Abbreviations

DANA

Neu5Ac2en 2,3-dehydro-2-deoxy-N-acetyl neuraminic acid

FANA

deoxy-2,3-dehydro-N-trifluoroacetylneuraminic acid

4-GU-DANA

2,3-didehydro-2,4-dideoxy-4-guanidino-N-acetylneuraminic acid

SV5

simian virus 5

hPIV1, 2 or 3

human parainfluenza virus 1, 2 or 3

NDV

Newcastle Disease Virus

Neu5Ac

N-acetylneuraminic acid

Neu5Gc

N-glycolylneuraminic acid

α-Neu5thioAc2Sme

α-2-S-methyl-5-N-thioacetylneuraminic acid

RSV

Respiratory Syncitial Virus

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© Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Departamento de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular, Edificio DepartamentalUniversidad de SalamancaSalamancaSpain

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