Stressless Schwarzschild

  • S. Deser
Research Article


This self-contained pedagogical simple explicit 6-step derivation of the Schwarzschild solution, in “\(3 + 1\)” formulation and conformal spatial gauge, (almost) avoids all affinity, curvature and index gymnastics.


Analytical GR 



I thank R. Beig, and J. Franklin for useful discussions. This work was supported by Grants NSF PHY-1266107 and DOE DEFG02-16493ER40701.


  1. 1.
    Deser, S., Tekin, B.: Cl. Quant. Gravity 20, 4877 (2003). gr-qc/0306114ADSCrossRefzbMATHMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Deser, S., Franklin, J.: Am. J. Phys. 73, 261 (2005). gr-qc/0408067ADSCrossRefzbMATHMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Arnowitt, R., Deser, S., Misner, C.W.: The dynamics of general relativity. In: Witten, L. (eds.) Gravitation: An Introduction to Current Research. Wiley, NY, (1962) reprinted as gr-qc/0405109Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    For example, Eisenhart, L.P.: Riemannian Geometry. Princeton University Press (1949)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Deser, S., Laurent, B.: Am. J. Phys. 36, 789 (1968)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Lauritsen LaboratoryCalifornia Institute of TechnologyPasadenaUSA
  2. 2.Physics DepartmentBrandeis UniversityWalthamUSA

Personalised recommendations