Limits on decaying dark energy density models from the CMB temperature–redshift relation
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- Jetzer, P., Puy, D., Signore, M. et al. Gen Relativ Gravit (2011) 43: 1083. doi:10.1007/s10714-010-1091-4
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The nature of the dark energy is still a mystery and several models have been proposed to explain it. Here we consider a phenomenological model for dark energy decay into photons and particles as proposed by Lima (Phys Rev D 54:2571, 1996). He studied the thermodynamic aspects of decaying dark energy models in particular in the case of a continuous photon creation and/or disruption. Following his approach, we derive a temperature redshift relation for the cosmic microwave background (CMB) which depends on the effective equation of state weff and on the “adiabatic index” γ. Comparing our relation with the data on the CMB temperature as a function of the redshift obtained from Sunyaev–Zel’dovich observations and at higher redshift from quasar absorption line spectra, we find weff = −0.97 ± 0.03, adopting for the adiabatic index γ = 4/3, in good agreement with current estimates and still compatible with weff = −1, implying that the dark energy content being constant in time.