General Relativity and Gravitation

, Volume 42, Issue 9, pp 2269–2300

Gravitational lensing by black holes

Review Article

DOI: 10.1007/s10714-010-0988-2

Cite this article as:
Bozza, V. Gen Relativ Gravit (2010) 42: 2269. doi:10.1007/s10714-010-0988-2


We review the theoretical aspects of gravitational lensing by black holes, and discuss the perspectives for realistic observations. We will first treat lensing by spherically symmetric black holes, in which the formation of infinite sequences of higher order images emerges in the clearest way. We will then consider the effects of the spin of the black hole, with the formation of giant higher order caustics and multiple images. Finally, we will consider the perspectives for observations of black hole lensing, from the detection of secondary images of stellar sources and spots on the accretion disk to the interpretation of iron K-lines and direct imaging of the shadow of the black hole.


Gravitational lensing Black holes Galactic center 

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Dipartimento di Fisica, E. R. CaianielloUniversità di SalernoFiscianoItaly
  2. 2.Sezione di NapoliIstituto Nazionale di Fisica NucleareNaplesItaly
  3. 3.Istituto Internazionale per gli Alti Studi ScientificiVietri sul MareItaly

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