Advertisement

Estimating Near-Surface Shear-Wave-Velocity Structures Via Multichannel Analysis of Rayleigh and Love Waves: An Experiment at the Boise Hydrogeophysical Research Site

Abstract

Surface-wave analysis has been widely used for near-surface geophysical and geotechnical studies by using the dispersive characteristic of surface waves (Rayleigh or Love waves) to determine subsurface model parameters. Unlike Rayleigh waves, the dispersive nature of Love waves is independent of P-wave velocity in 1D models, which makes Love-wave dispersion curve interpretation simpler than Rayleigh waves. This reduces the degree of nonuniqueness leading to more stable inversion of Love-wave dispersion curves. To estimate the near-surface shear-wave velocities (Vs) using multichannel analysis of Rayleigh (MASW) and Love waves (MALW) for hydrologic characterization, we conducted an experiment at the Boise Hydrogeophysical Research Site (BHRS, an experimental well field located near Boise, Idaho, USA). We constructed the pseudo-3D velocity structures at the BHRS using both the MASW and MALW methods and compared the results to borehole measurements. We used the 3D Vs distribution to identify and resolve the extent of a relatively low-velocity anomaly caused by a sand channel. The Vs structure and anomaly boundaries were delineated at the meter scale and confirmed by the ground-penetrating radar surveys. The differences in shear-wave velocity determined by MASW, MALW and borehole measurements were discussed and interpreted to reflect the near-surface anisotropy associated with the hydrologic characteristics at the BHRS. Our results demonstrated that the combination of MALW and MASW can be a powerful tool for near-surface characterization.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

We’re sorry, something doesn't seem to be working properly.

Please try refreshing the page. If that doesn't work, please contact support so we can address the problem.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11

References

  1. Anderson D (1961) Elastic wave propagation in layered anisotropic media. J Geophys Res 66(9):2953–2963

  2. Askari R, Hejazi SH (2015) Estimation of surface-wave group velocity using slant stack in the generalized S-transform domain surface-wave group velocity estimation. Geophysics 80(4):EN83–EN92

  3. Barrash W, Clemo T (2002) Hierarchical geostatistics and multifacies systems: Boise Hydrogeophysical Research Site, Boise, Idaho. Water Resour Res 38(10):1196

  4. Barrash W, Reboulet EC (2004) Significance of porosity for stratigraphy and textural composition in subsurface coarse fluvial deposits: Boise Hydrogeophysical Research Site. Geol Soc Am Bull 116(9/10):1059–1073

  5. Barrash W, Clemo T, Knoll MD (1999) Boise Hydrogeophysical Research Site (BHRS): objectives, design, initial geostatistical results, paper presented at symposium on the application of geophysics to environmental and engineering problems 1999. Environmental and Engineering Geophysical Society, Oakland

  6. Beaty KS, Schmitt DR, Sacchi M (2002) Simulated annealing inversion of multimode Rayleigh wave dispersion curves for geological structure. Geophys J Int 151:622–631

  7. Bergamo P, Boiero D, Socco LV (2012) Retrieving 2D structures from surface-wave data by means of space-varying spatial windowing. Geophysics 77(4):EN39–EN51

  8. Boaga J, Cassiani G, Strobbia CL, Vignoli G (2013) Mode misidentification in Rayleigh waves: ellipticity as a cause and a cure. Geophysics 78(4):EN17–EN28

  9. Boiero D, Socco LV (2010) Retrieving lateral variations from surface wave dispersion curves analysis. Geophys Prospect 58(6):977–996

  10. Bradford JH, Clement WP, Barrash W (2009) Estimating porosity with ground-penetrating radar reflection tomography: a controlled 3-D experiment at the Boise Hydrogeophysical Research Site. Water Resour Res 45:W00D26

  11. Chen X (1993) A systematic and efficient method of computing normal modes for multilayered half-space. Geophys J Int 115:391–409

  12. Cheng C, Chen L, Yao H, Jiang M, Wang B (2013) Distinct variations of crustal shear wave velocity structure and radial anisotropy beneath the North China Craton and tectonic implications. Gondwana Res 23(1):25–38

  13. Clement WP, Knoll MD (2006) Traveltime inversion of vertical radar profiles. Geophysics 71:K67–K76

  14. Comina C, Krawczyk CM, Polom U, Socco LV (2017) Integration of SH seismic reflection and Love-wave dispersion data for shear wave velocity determination over quick clays. Geophys J Int 210(3):1922–1931

  15. Dal Moro G, Moura RM, Moustafa SR (2015) Multi-component joint analysis of surface waves. J Appl Geophys 119:128–138

  16. Ernst JR, Green AG, Maurer H, Holliger K (2007) Application of a new 2-D time-domain full-waveform inversion scheme to crosshole radar data. Geophysics 72(5):J53–J64

  17. Fiore VD, Cavuoto G, Tarallo D, Punzo M, Evangelista L (2016) Multichannel analysis of surface waves and down-hole tests in the archeological “palatine hill” area (rome, italy): evaluation and influence of 2D effects on the shear wave velocity. Surv Geophys 37(3):625–642

  18. Forbriger T (2003) Inversion of shallow-Seismic wavefields: I wavefield transformation. Geophys J Int 153(3):719–734

  19. Foti S, Parolai S, Albarello D, Picozzi M (2011) Application of surface-wave methods for seismic site characterization. Surv Geophys 32:777–825

  20. Gao L, Xia J, Pan Y, Xu Y (2016) Reason and condition for mode kissing in MASW method. Pure Appl Geophys 173(5):1627–1638

  21. Garofalo F, Foti S, Hollender F, Bard P, Cornou C, Cox BR, Dechamp A, Ohrnberger M, Perron V, Sicilia D, Teague D, Vergniault C (2016) InterPACIFIC project: comparison of invasive and non-invasive methods for seismic site characterization. Part II: inter-comparison between surface-wave and borehole methods. Soil Dyn Earthq Eng 82:241–254

  22. Haskell NA (1953) The dispersion of surface waves on multilayered media. Bull Seismol Soc Am 43:17–34

  23. Hayashi K, Suzuki H (2004) CMP cross-correlation analysis of multichannel surface-wave data. Explor Geophys 35:7–13

  24. Heinz J, Kleineidam S, Teutsch G, Aigner T (2003) Heterogeneity patterns of quaternary glaciofluvial gravel bodies (SW-Germany): applications to hydrogeology. Sed Geol 158:1–23

  25. Helbig K (1986) Shear-wave—what they are and how they can be used. In: Danbom SH, Domenico SN (eds) Shear-wave exploration. Society of Exploration Geophysicists, Tulsa, pp 19–36

  26. Hu Y, Xia J, Mi B, Cheng F, Shen C (2018) A pitfall of muting and removing bad traces in surface-wave analysis. J Appl Geophys 153:136–142

  27. Ikeda T, Tsuji T, Matsuoka T (2013) Window-controlled CMP crosscorrelation analysis for surface waves in laterally heterogeneous media. Geophysics 78(6):EN95–EN105

  28. Ikeda T, Matsuoka T, Tsuji T, Nakayama T (2015) Characteristics of the horizontal component of Rayleigh waves in multimode analysis of surface waves. Geophysics 80(1):EN1–EN11

  29. Ivanov J, Miller RD, Lacombe P, Johnson CD, Lane JW Jr (2006) Delineating a shallow fault zone and dipping bedrock strata using multichannel analysis of surface waves with a land streamer. Geophysics 71(5):A39–A42

  30. Ivanov J, Miller RD, Feigenbaum D, Morton SLC, Peterie SL, Dunbar JB (2017) Revisiting levees in southern Texas using love-wave multichannel analysis of surface waves with the high-resolution linear Radon transform. Interpretation 5(3):T287–T298

  31. Johnson TC, Routh PS, Barrash W, Knoll MD (2007) A field comparison of Fresnel zone and ray-based GPR attenuation-difference tomography for time-lapse imaging of electrically anomalous tracer or contaminant plumes. Geophysics 72(2):G21–G29

  32. Jussel P, Stauffer F, Dracos T (1994) Transport modeling in heterogeneous aquifers: 1 statistical description and numerical generation. Water Resour Res 30(6):1803–1817

  33. Kennett BLN (1983) Seismic wave propagation in stratified media. Cambridge University Press, New York

  34. Klingbeil R, Kleineidam S, Asprion U, Aigner T, Teutsch G (1999) Relating lithofacies to hydrofacies: outcrop-based hydrogeological characterization of Quaternary gravel deposits. Sed Geol 129:299–310

  35. Konstantaki LA, Carpentier SFA, Garofalo F, Bergamo P, Socco LV (2013) Determining hydrological and soil mechanical parameters from multichannel surface-wave analysis across the Alpine Fault at Inchbonnie, New Zealand. Near Surf Geophys 11:435–448

  36. Lin C, Lin C (2007) Effect of lateral heterogeneity on surface wave testing: numerical simulations and a countermeasure. Soil Dyn Earthq Eng 27(6):541–552

  37. Lin F, Moschetti M, Ritzwoller M (2008) Surface wave tomography of the western United States from ambient seismic noise: Rayleigh and Love wave phase velocity maps. Geophys J Int 173:281–298

  38. Lin CP, Lin CH, Chien CJ (2017) Dispersion analysis of surface wave testing: sASW versus MASW. J Appl Geophys 143:223–230

  39. Luo Y, Xia J, Miller RD, Xu Y, Liu J, Liu Q (2008) Rayleigh-wave dispersive energy imaging by high-resolution linear Radon transform. Pure Appl Geophys 165(5):903–922

  40. Luo Y, Xia J, Liu J, Xu Y, Liu Q (2009) Research on the MASW middle-of-the-spread-results assumption. Soil Dyn Earthq Eng 29:71–79

  41. Luo Y, Xu Y, Yang Y (2013) Crustal radial anisotropy beneath the Dabie orogenic belt from ambient noise tomography. Geophys J Int 195(2):1149–1164

  42. Maraschini M, Foti S (2010) A Monte Carlo multimodal inversion of surface waves. Geophys J Int 182:1557–1566

  43. McMechan GA, Yedlin MJ (1981) Analysis of dispersive waves by wave field transformation. Geophysics 46:869–874

  44. Mi B, Xia J, Xu Y (2015) Finite-difference modeling of SH-wave conversions in shallow shear-wave refraction surveying. J Appl Geophys 119:71–78

  45. Mi B, Xia J, Shen C, Wang L, Hu Y, Cheng F (2017) Horizontal resolution of multichannel analysis of surface waves. Geophysics 82(3):EN51–EN66

  46. Mi B, Xia J, Shen C, Wang L (2018) Dispersion energy analysis of Rayleigh and Love waves in the presence of low-velocity layers in near-surface seismic surveys. Surv Geophys 39(2):271–288

  47. Mi B, Hu Y, Xia J, Socco LV (2019) Estimation of horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratios (ellipticity) of Rayleigh waves from multistation active-seismic records. Geophysics 84(6):EN81–EN92

  48. Michaels P, McCabe PEJ (1999) Interim URISP report 10: down-hole seismic surveys SH- and P- Waves. Technical Report, Boise State University Center for Geophysical Investigation of the Shallow Subsurface, pp 99–03, 08 June, 1999, Boise, Idaho

  49. Miller RD, Xia J, Park CB, Ivanov J (1999) Multichannel analysis of surface waves to map bedrock. Lead Edge 18:1392–1396

  50. Moret GJM, Knoll MD, Barrash W, Clement WC (2006) Investigating the stratigraphy of an alluvial aquifer using crosswell seismic traveltime tomography. Geophysics 71:B63–B73

  51. Muyzert E, Snieder R (2000) An alternative parameterization for surface waves in a transverse isotropic medium. Phys Earth Planet Inter 118(1–2):125–133

  52. Nazarian S, Stokoe II KH (1984) In situ shear wave velocities from spectral analysis of surface waves. In: 8th conference on earthquake engineering, vol 3, pp 31–38

  53. Ning L, Dai T, Wang L, Yuan S, Pang J (2018) Numerical investigation of Rayleigh-wave propagation on canyon topography using finite-difference method. J Appl Geophys 159:350–361

  54. O’Neill A (2004) Shear velocity model appraisal in shallow surface wave inversion. Proceedings of ISC-2 on geotechnical and geophysical site characterization, Viana da Fonseca A, Mayne PW (eds), Millpress, Rotterdam, pp 539–546

  55. O’Neill A, Campbell T, Matsuoka T (2008) Lateral resolution and lithological interpretation of surface-wave profiling. Lead Edge 27:1550–1553

  56. Pan Y, Gao L, Bohlen T (2019) High-resolution characterization of near-surface structures by surface-wave inversions: from dispersion curve to full waveform. Surv Geophys 40(2):167–195

  57. Park CB (2005) MASW horizontal resolution in 2D shear-velocity (Vs) mapping. Kansas Geological Survey Open-file Report, p 4

  58. Park CB, Miller RD, Xia J (1998) Imaging dispersion curves of surface waves on multi-channel record. Technical program with biographies, SEG, 68th annual meeting, New Orleans, Louisiana, pp 1377–1380

  59. Park CB, Miller RD, Xia J (1999) Multi-channel analysis of surface waves (MASW). Geophysics 64:800–808

  60. Pasquet S, Bodet L, Dhemaied A, Mouhri A, Vitale Q, Rejiba F, Flipo N, Guérin R (2015) Detecting different water table levels in a shallow aquifer with combined P-, surface and SH-wave surveys: insights from VP/VS or Poisson’s ratios. J Appl Geophys 113:38–50

  61. Qiu X, Wang Y, Wang C (2019) Rayleigh-wave dispersion analysis using complex-vector seismic data. Near Surf Geophys 17:487–499

  62. Schwab FA, Knopoff L (1972) Fast surface wave and free mode computations. In: Bolt BA (ed) Methods in computational physics. Academic Press, Cambridge, pp 87–180

  63. Schwenk JT, Sloan SD, Ivanov J, Miller RD (2016) Surface-wave methods for anomaly detection. Geophysics 81(4):EN29–EN42

  64. Sheriff RE (2002) Encyclopedic dictionary of applied geophysics, 4th edn. Society of Exploration Geophysicists, Tulsa

  65. Sloan SD, Peterie SL, Miller RD, Ivanov J, Schwenk JT, Mckenna JR (2015) Detecting clandestine tunnels using near-surface seismic techniques. Geophysics 80(5):EN127–EN135

  66. Socco LV, Strobbia CL (2003) Extensive modeling to study surface wave resolution. In: Proceedings of the 16th symposium on the application of geophysics to engineering and environmental problems (SAGEEP), pp 1312–1319

  67. Socco LV, Boiero D (2008) Improved Monte Carlo inversion of surface wave data. Geophys Prospect 56:357–371

  68. Socco LV, Foti S, Boiero D (2010) Surface-wave analysis for building near-surface velocity models—established approaches and new perspectives. Geophysics 75(5):A83–A102

  69. Song YY, Castagna JP, Black RA, Knapp RW (1989) Sensitivity of near-surface shear-wave velocity determination from Rayleigh and Love waves. Technical program with biographies, SEG, 59th Annual Meeting, Dallas, TX, pp 509–512

  70. Song X, Li T, Lv X, Fang H, Gu H (2012) Application of particle swarm optimization to interpret Rayleigh wave dispersion curves. J Appl Geophys 84:1–13

  71. Strobbia C, Foti S (2006) Multi-offset phase analysis of surface wave data (MOPA). J Appl Geophys 59:300–313

  72. Thomson WT (1950) Transmission of elastic waves through a stratified solid medium. J Appl Phys 21:89–93

  73. Uhlemann S, Hagedorn S, Dashwood B, Maurer H, Gunn D, Dijkstra T, Chambers J (2016) Landslide characterization using P- and S-wave seismic refraction tomography—the importance of elastic moduli. J Appl Geophys 134:64–76

  74. Vignoli G, Strobbia C, Cassiani G, Vermeer P (2011) Statistical multi-offset phase analysis for surface wave processing in laterally varying media. Geophysics 76(2):U1–U11

  75. Wang L, Xu Y, Luo Y (2015) Numerical investigation of 3D multichannel analysis of surface wave method. J Appl Geophys 119:156–169

  76. Xia J (2014) Estimation of near-surface shear-wave velocities and quality factors using multichannel analysis of surface-wave methods. J Appl Geophys 103:140–151

  77. Xia J, Miller RD, Park CB (1999) Estimation of near-surface shear-wave velocity by inversion of Rayleigh wave. Geophysics 64:691–700

  78. Xia J, Miller RD, Park CB, Hunter JA, Harris JB, Ivanov J (2002) Comparing shear-wave velocity profiles from multichannel analysis of surface wave with borehole measurements. Soil Dyn Earthq Eng 22(3):181–190

  79. Xia J, Miller RD, Park CB, Tian G (2003) Inversion of high frequency surface waves with fundamental and higher modes. J Appl Geophys 52(1):45–57

  80. Xia J, Chen C, Li PH, Lewis MJ (2004) Delineation of a collapse feature in a noisy environment using a multichannel surface wave technique. Geotechnique 54(1):17–27

  81. Xia J, Chen C, Tian G, Miller RD, Ivanov J (2005) Resolution of high-frequency Rayleigh-wave data. J Environ Eng Geophys 10(2):99–110

  82. Xia J, Xu Y, Chen C, Kaufmann RD, Luo Y (2006) Simple equations guide high-frequency surface-wave investigation techniques. Soil Dyn Earthq Eng 26(5):395–403

  83. Xia J, Xu YX, Miller RD (2007) Generating image of dispersive energy by frequency decomposition and slant stacking. Pure Appl Geophys 164(5):941–956

  84. Xia J, Miller RD, Xu Y, Luo Y, Chen C, Liu J, Ivanov J, Zeng C (2009) High-frequency Rayleigh-wave method. J Earth Sci 20(3):563–579

  85. Xia J, Xu Y, Luo Y, Miller RD, Cakir R, Zeng C (2012) Advantages of using multichannel analysis of Love waves (MALW) to estimate near-surface shear-wave velocity. Surv Geophys 33(5):841–860

  86. Xu Y, Xia J, Miller RD (2006) Quantitative estimation of minimum offset for multichannel surface-wave survey with actively exciting source. J Appl Geophys 59(2):117–125

  87. Yilmaz O (1987) Seismic data processing. Society of Exploration Geophysicists, Tulsa

  88. Yilmaz Ö, Eser M, Berilgen M (2006) A case study of seismic zonation in municipal areas. Lead Edge 25:319–330

  89. Yin X, Xu H, Wang L, Hu Y, Shen C, Sun S (2016) Improving horizontal resolution of high-frequency surface-wave methods using travel-time tomography. J Appl Geophys 126:42–51

  90. Yuan K, Beghein C (2014) Three-dimensional variations in Love and Rayleigh wave azimuthal anisotropy for the upper 800 km of the mantle. J Geophys Res Solid Earth 119(4):3232–3255

  91. Zhang SX, Chan LS (2003) Possible effects of misidentified mode number on Rayleigh wave inversion. J Appl Geophys 53:17–29

  92. Zhang SX, Chan LS, Xia J (2004) The selection of field acquisition parameters for dispersion images from multichannel surface wave data. Pure Appl Geophys 161:185–201

Download references

Acknowledgements

The authors greatly appreciate the comments and suggestions from the Editor in Chief Michael J. Rycroft and two anonymous reviewers that significantly improved the quality of the manuscript. The authors thank the staff and students in the Center for Geophysical Investigation of the Shallow Subsurface (CGISS), Boise State University, for their generous help in data acquisitions. The VSP data are from the borehole report by P. Michaels and P.E.J. McCabe. The first author thanks Prof. Laura Valentina Socco for helpful discussions on this research. This study is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) under Grant Nos. 41774115 and 41830103 and the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation under Grant No. 2019M652061.

Author information

Correspondence to Jianghai Xia.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Mi, B., Xia, J., Bradford, J.H. et al. Estimating Near-Surface Shear-Wave-Velocity Structures Via Multichannel Analysis of Rayleigh and Love Waves: An Experiment at the Boise Hydrogeophysical Research Site. Surv Geophys (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10712-019-09582-4

Download citation

Keywords

  • MASW
  • MALW
  • Near-surface Vs structure
  • Anomaly delineation
  • Anisotropy