# Evaluating Topographic Effects on Ground Deformation: Insights from Finite Element Modeling

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## Abstract

Ground deformation has been demonstrated to be one of the most common signals of volcanic unrest. Although volcanoes are commonly associated with significant topographic relief, most analytical models assume the Earth’s surface as flat. However, it has been confirmed that this approximation can lead to important misinterpretations of the recorded surface deformation data. Here we perform a systematic and quantitative analysis of how topography may influence ground deformation signals generated by a spherical pressure source embedded in an elastic homogeneous media and how these variations correlate with the different topographic parameters characterizing the terrain form (e.g., slope, aspect, curvature). For this, we bring together the results presented in previous published papers and complement them with new axisymmetric and 3D finite element (FE) model results. First, we study, in a parametric way, the influence of a volcanic edifice centered above the pressure source axis. Second, we carry out new 3D FE models simulating the real topography of three different volcanic areas representative of topographic scenarios common in volcanic regions: Rabaul caldera (Papua New Guinea) and the volcanic islands of Tenerife and El Hierro (Canary Islands). The calculated differences are then correlated with a series of topographic parameters. The final aim is to investigate the artifacts that might arise from the use of half-space models at volcanic areas due to diverse topographic features (e.g., collapse caldera structures, prominent central edifices, large landslide scars).

## Keywords

Topographic effects Volcano deformation FE models Rabaul Tenerife El Hierro## Notes

### Acknowledgments

This research was partially funded by the European Commission (FP7 Theme: ENV.2011.1.3.3-1; Grant 282759: “VUELCO”). AG is grateful for her Juan de la Cierva Grant (JCI-2010-06092) and her Ramón y Cajal Grant (RYC-2012-11024). The Editor in Chief, Prof Michael J. Rycroft, Giuseppe De Natale and two anonymous reviewers are thanked for their thorough and constructive reviews, which resulted in substantial improvements to this paper.

## Supplementary material

## References

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