Surveys in Geophysics

, Volume 35, Issue 3, pp 813–837

Glaciers in the Earth’s Hydrological Cycle: Assessments of Glacier Mass and Runoff Changes on Global and Regional Scales

Article

Abstract

Changes in mass contained by mountain glaciers and ice caps can modify the Earth’s hydrological cycle on multiple scales. On a global scale, the mass loss from glaciers contributes to sea-level rise. On regional and local scales, glacier meltwater is an important contributor to and modulator of river flow. In light of strongly accelerated worldwide glacier retreat, the associated glacier mass losses raise concerns over the sustainability of water supplies in many parts of the world. Here, we review recent attempts to quantify glacier mass changes and their effect on river runoff on regional and global scales. We find that glacier runoff is defined ambiguously in the literature, hampering direct comparison of findings on the importance of glacier contribution to runoff. Despite consensus on the hydrological implications to be expected from projected future warming, there is a pressing need for quantifying the associated regional-scale changes in glacier runoff and responses in different climate regimes.

Keywords

Glaciers Mass balance Glacier runoff Sea-level rise Mass-balance observations Glacier projections Modeling 

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Earth, Ocean and Atmospheric SciencesUniversity of British ColumbiaVancouverCanada
  2. 2.Geophysical InstituteUniversity of AlaskaFairbanksUSA
  3. 3.Department of Earth SciencesUppsala UniversityUppsalaSweden

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