Surveys in Geophysics

, Volume 33, Issue 3, pp 453–473

Total Solar Irradiance Observations


DOI: 10.1007/s10712-011-9168-5

Cite this article as:
Fröhlich, C. Surv Geophys (2012) 33: 453. doi:10.1007/s10712-011-9168-5


The record of total solar irradiance (TSI) during the past 35 years has overlapping observations from space which can be merged to a composite, and three are available, namely the PMOD, the ACRIM and the IRMB composites. There are important differences between them, which are discussed in detail in order to find the best representation of solar variability during the last three cycles, for the following discussions of solar irradiance variability. Moreover, the absolute value of TSI from TIM on SORCE is 1,361 Wm−2, substantially lower than the value 1,365 Wm−2, which was observed by the classical radiometers. New results from specific experiments are now available, which are discussed in order to define the value to be used in, e.g., climate models. The most important issue regarding the recent TSI records is the low value observed during the minimum in 2009, which is 25% of a typical cycle amplitude lower than the value in 1996. The validity of this low value has been confirmed by comparing all existing TSI observations during cycle 23. On the other hand, activity indices, such as the sunspot number, the 10.7-cm radio flux (F10.7), the CaII and MgII indices and also the Ly-α irradiance or the frequency changes in low-order p modes, show a much smaller decreases relative to their respective typical cycle amplitude. It is most likely that an increasing contrast of the facular and network elements with decreasing magnetic field is responsible for this discrepancy. The value of TSI at minima is correlated with the open magnetic field of the Sun, BR, at minima. Using BR at minima, interpolated linearly in between as a fourth component of a proxy model based on the photometric sunspot index and on the MgII index improves the explanation of the variance of TSI over the full period of the last three solar cycles to 84.7%. Results from other models are also discussed.


Total solar irradiance Solar variability Solar activity 

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Physikalisch-Meteorologisches Observatorium Davos, World Radiation CenterDavos DorfSwitzerland

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