Surveys in Geophysics

, Volume 33, Issue 3–4, pp 387–393 | Cite as

Estimating Global Energy Flow from the Global Upper Ocean



The relative significance of short multi-year linear trends in the global integral of 0–700 m ocean heat content anomaly (OHCA) is investigated by examining the overlapping segments of the 16-year OHCA curve from Lyman et al. (Nature 465:334–337, 2010). Segments of 4 years and less are found not to be significantly different from each other or from 0 at the 90% confidence interval. Likewise, short 5- to 7-year segments are not statistically different from each other. Ten-year and longer trends are significant and provide a useful comparison for satellite observations of the radiation imbalance at the top of the atmosphere.


Ocean heat content Top of the atmosphere (TOA) Expendable bathythermograph (XBT) Warming 



The bulk of the in situ data used herein was provided through the World Ocean Database 2009 ( Float data were collected and made freely available by Argo (a pilot program of the Global Ocean Observing System) and contributing national programs ( Gregory C. Johnson provided helpful comments and insight. The NOAA Climate Program Office and the NOAA Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research provided support for this research. The findings and conclusions in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. JIMAR contribution number 11–375. PMEL contribution number 3722.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Joint Institute for Marine and Atmospheric ResearchUniversity of Hawaii at ManoaHonoluluUSA
  2. 2.NOAA/Pacific Marine Environmental LaboratorySeattleUSA

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