Surveys in Geophysics

, Volume 26, Issue 1–3, pp 177–191 | Cite as

Low-Frequency Plasma Waves in the Outer Polar CUSP: A Review of Observations from Prognoz 8, Interball 1, Magion 4, and Cluster

  • J. BleckiEmail author
  • R. Wronowski
  • S. Savin
  • N. Cornilleau-Wehrlin
  • M. Parrot
  • Z. Nemecek
  • J. Safrankova
  • O. Santolik
  • K. Kudela
  • J-A. Sauvaud


This paper presents a review of the most interesting observations of low-frequency plasma waves together with plasma particles which were made by the Interball 1, Magion 4 and Prognoz 8 satellites in the outer polar cusp. Accelerated plasma particles, hot electron populations and very strong wave activity, particularly at low frequencies, are observed. A detailed study of the wave spectra together with the distribution function for electrons indicate the correlation between the presence of lower-hybrid waves and the population of the particles with higher energy than in the surrounding space. These experimental facts suggest that strong coupling between waves and particles is responsible for plasma heating. During polar cusp crossings by Interball 1 and Prognoz 8, FFT analysis of the wave form indicates many bursts of ULF emissions in both electric and magnetic components. These waves have highly non-stationary characteristics. To study the dynamics of changes in the spectral characteristics of the waves wavelet analysis has been used. Nonlinear interactions are studied using bispectral methods of analysis. This presentation gives the results of such an analysis for selected cusp crossings at different altitudes. An example of wave activity registered by the STAFF instrument onboard the CLUSTER spacecraft in the polar cusp is also presented.


bispectral methods cusp FFT plasma waves wavelet analysis 



International Sun–Earth Explorers


Geocentric Solar Ecliptic


Geocentric Solar Magnetic


Highly Eccentric Orbiting Satellite


Defense Meterological Satellite Program


Analysis of Spectra of Plasma waves and Instabilities


Detektor Ochlazhdaemyj Kremnievyj (Cooled Silicic Detector)


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Copyright information

© Springer 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Blecki
    • 1
    Email author
  • R. Wronowski
    • 1
  • S. Savin
    • 2
  • N. Cornilleau-Wehrlin
    • 3
  • M. Parrot
    • 4
  • Z. Nemecek
    • 5
  • J. Safrankova
    • 5
  • O. Santolik
    • 5
  • K. Kudela
    • 6
  • J-A. Sauvaud
    • 7
  1. 1.Space Research Centre PASWarsawPoland
  2. 2.Space Research Institute RASMoscowRussia
  3. 3.CETP/CNRSVelizyFrance
  4. 4.LPCE/CNRSOrleansFrance
  5. 5.Charles UniversityPragueCzech Republic
  6. 6.Institute of Experimental Physics of KosiceSASSlovak Republic
  7. 7.CESR/CNRSToulouseFrance

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