Genetic Programming and Evolvable Machines

, Volume 15, Issue 3, pp 245–274 | Cite as

Hardware architecture of the Protein Processing Associative Memory and the effects of dimensionality and quantisation on performance

  • Omer QadirEmail author
  • Alex Lenz
  • Gianluca Tempesti
  • Jon Timmis
  • Tony Pipe
  • Andy Tyrrell


The Protein Processor Associative Memory (PPAM) is a novel hardware architecture for a distributed, decentralised, robust and scalable, bidirectional, hetero-associative memory, that can adapt online to changes in the training data. The PPAM uses the location of data in memory to identify relationships and is therefore fundamentally different from traditional processing methods that tend to use arithmetic operations to perform computation. This paper presents the hardware architecture and details a sample digital logic implementation with an analysis of the implications of using existing techniques for such hardware architectures. It also presents the results of implementing the PPAM for a robotic application that involves learning the forward and inverse kinematics. The results show that, contrary to most other techniques, the PPAM benefits from higher dimensionality of data, and that quantisation intervals are crucial to the performance of the PPAM.


Protein processing PPAM FPGA Associative memory BERT2 Inverse kinematics Dimensionality Quantisation Non-standard computation 



The research was funded by the EPSRC funded SABRE (Self-healing cellular Architectures for Biologically-inspired highly Reliable Electronic systems) project under Grant No. FP/F06219211.

Supplementary material

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Supplementary material 1 (PDF 165 KB)
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Supplementary material 5 (PDF 312 KB)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Omer Qadir
    • 1
    Email author
  • Alex Lenz
    • 3
  • Gianluca Tempesti
    • 2
  • Jon Timmis
    • 2
  • Tony Pipe
    • 3
  • Andy Tyrrell
    • 2
  1. 1.Nordic SemiconductorTrondheimNorway
  2. 2.University of YorkYorkUK
  3. 3.University of West of EnglandBristolUK

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