Genetic Programming and Evolvable Machines

, Volume 15, Issue 1, pp 103–108 | Cite as

Response to comments on “Genetic Programming and Emergence”

  • Wolfgang BanzhafEmail author

At the outset, I would like to thank all colleagues who took the time to read my opinion piece “Genetic Programming and Emergence”, thought about it, and finally wrote their comments. I am very happy about these comments, as they provide clear evidence that my contribution has been well received by the community. I shall next take up these comments in alphabetic order of their authors, briefly summarize the gist of their argument and provide for each one what I hope is a useful response.

Lee Altenberg [1] emphasizes that emergent phenomena in Genetic Programming are produced in a formal system. To bolster this argument, he uses the mathematical structures of a matrix and a vector as an even simpler example of an interacting structure, whose formal manipulation leads to emergent phenomena in the mathematical world examined by “Linear Algebra”. As examples he mentions eigenvalues, spectral radii, etc. Thus, he argues, that an entire field of Mathematics occupies itself with emergent...


Genetic Program High Fitness Cognitive Dissonance Repeated Pattern Emergent Phenomenon 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



I am indebted to Lee Spector, the Editor-in-Chief of Genetic Programming and Evolvable Machines, for proposing this contribution format and for handling the process of submission so diligently.


  1. 1.
    L. Altenberg, Mathematics awaits: commentary on “Genetic programming and emergence” by Wolfgang Banzhaf. Genet. Program. Evolvable Mach. 14 (2013). doi: 10.1007/s10710-013-9198-5
  2. 2.
    H. Bersini, Emergent phenomena belong only to biology. Synthese 185, 257–272 (2010)CrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    J. Bonner, First Signals: The Evolution of Multicellular Development (Princeton University Press, 2001)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    A. Ekárt, Emergence in genetic programming—Let’s exploit it! Genet. Program. Evolvable Mach. 14 (2013). doi: 10.1007/s10710-013-9199-4
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    E. Jablonka, M. Lamb, Evolution in Four Dimensions (MIT Press, 2005)Google Scholar
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    S. Kauffman, The Origins of Order (Oxford University Press, 1993)Google Scholar
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    K. Krawiec, Genetic programming: where meaning emerges from program code. Genet. Program. Evolvable Mach. 14 (2013). doi: 10.1007/s10710-013-9200-2
  8. 8.
    A. Leier, Emergence in simulated evolution. Genet. Program. Evolvable Mach. 14 (2013). doi: 10.1007/s10710-013-9201-1
  9. 9.
    D. Montana, A response to “Genetic programming and emergence”. Genet. Program. Evolvable Mach. 14 (2013). doi: 10.1007/s10710-013-9202-0
  10. 10.
    R. Poli, W. Langdon, S. Dignum, On the limiting distribution of program sizes in tree-based genetic programming, in Proceedings EuroGP 2007 (LNCS, Springer, 2007)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    M. Sipper, Commentary on “Genetic programming and emergence”. Genet. Program. Evolvable Mach. 14 (2013). doi: 10.1007/s10710-013-9203-z
  12. 12.
    L. Trut, Early canid domestication: the farm-fox experiment. American Scientist 87, 160 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    P.A. Whigham, Wolfgang Banzhaf: Genetic programming and emergence. Genet. Program. Evolvable Mach. 14 (2013). doi: 10.1007/s10710-013-9204-y

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Memorial University of NewfoundlandSt. John’sCanada

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