Response to comments on “Genetic Programming and Emergence”
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At the outset, I would like to thank all colleagues who took the time to read my opinion piece “Genetic Programming and Emergence”, thought about it, and finally wrote their comments. I am very happy about these comments, as they provide clear evidence that my contribution has been well received by the community. I shall next take up these comments in alphabetic order of their authors, briefly summarize the gist of their argument and provide for each one what I hope is a useful response.
Lee Altenberg  emphasizes that emergent phenomena in Genetic Programming are produced in a formal system. To bolster this argument, he uses the mathematical structures of a matrix and a vector as an even simpler example of an interacting structure, whose formal manipulation leads to emergent phenomena in the mathematical world examined by “Linear Algebra”. As examples he mentions eigenvalues, spectral radii, etc. Thus, he argues, that an entire field of Mathematics occupies itself with emergent...
KeywordsGenetic Program High Fitness Cognitive Dissonance Repeated Pattern Emergent Phenomenon
I am indebted to Lee Spector, the Editor-in-Chief of Genetic Programming and Evolvable Machines, for proposing this contribution format and for handling the process of submission so diligently.
- 1.L. Altenberg, Mathematics awaits: commentary on “Genetic programming and emergence” by Wolfgang Banzhaf. Genet. Program. Evolvable Mach. 14 (2013). doi: 10.1007/s10710-013-9198-5
- 3.J. Bonner, First Signals: The Evolution of Multicellular Development (Princeton University Press, 2001)Google Scholar
- 4.A. Ekárt, Emergence in genetic programming—Let’s exploit it! Genet. Program. Evolvable Mach. 14 (2013). doi: 10.1007/s10710-013-9199-4
- 5.E. Jablonka, M. Lamb, Evolution in Four Dimensions (MIT Press, 2005)Google Scholar
- 6.S. Kauffman, The Origins of Order (Oxford University Press, 1993)Google Scholar
- 7.K. Krawiec, Genetic programming: where meaning emerges from program code. Genet. Program. Evolvable Mach. 14 (2013). doi: 10.1007/s10710-013-9200-2
- 8.A. Leier, Emergence in simulated evolution. Genet. Program. Evolvable Mach. 14 (2013). doi: 10.1007/s10710-013-9201-1
- 9.D. Montana, A response to “Genetic programming and emergence”. Genet. Program. Evolvable Mach. 14 (2013). doi: 10.1007/s10710-013-9202-0
- 10.R. Poli, W. Langdon, S. Dignum, On the limiting distribution of program sizes in tree-based genetic programming, in Proceedings EuroGP 2007 (LNCS, Springer, 2007)Google Scholar
- 11.M. Sipper, Commentary on “Genetic programming and emergence”. Genet. Program. Evolvable Mach. 14 (2013). doi: 10.1007/s10710-013-9203-z
- 13.P.A. Whigham, Wolfgang Banzhaf: Genetic programming and emergence. Genet. Program. Evolvable Mach. 14 (2013). doi: 10.1007/s10710-013-9204-y