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Genetic Programming and Evolvable Machines

, Volume 15, Issue 1, pp 63–73 | Cite as

Genetic Programming and Emergence

  • Wolfgang BanzhafEmail author
Article

Abstract

Emergence and its accompanying phenomena are a widespread process in nature. Despite its prominence, there is no agreement in the sciences about the concept and how to define or measure emergence. One of the most contentious issues discussed is that of top-down (or downward) causation as a defining characteristic of systems with emergence. In this contribution we shall argue that emergence happens in Genetic Programming, for all the world to see.

Keywords

Genetic programming Emergence Emergent phenomena Top-down causation Repetitive patterns Modularity 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This opinion article arose from a workshop on Frontiers in Natural Computing which took place on September 10–12, 2012 at the Center for Complex Systems, University of York, York, UK. The author is grateful for the invitation to speak at this event, and for the lively discussions at the workshop. The author also acknowledges fascinating discussions at our interdisciplinary MUN Complex Systems Discussion Group. Reviewer comments were very helpful in improving this manuscript. W.B. is supported by NSERC under the Discovery Grant program, RGPIN 283304-2012.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Memorial University of NewfoundlandSt. John’sCanada

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