, Volume 147, Issue 5–6, pp 351–358 | Cite as

Late flowering in F1 hybrid rice brought about by the complementary effect of quantitative trait loci

  • Kazuki MatsubaraEmail author
  • Tsuyu Ando
  • Masahiro YanoEmail author
Original Paper


Late flowering sometimes occurs in F1 hybrids between rice varieties (Oryza sativa L.), although the parental varieties show similar days-to-flowering (DTF). The genetic architecture prompting the occurrence of such late flowering is poorly understood. To clarify the genetic architecture of late flowering in F1 hybrids from a cross between rice varieties, ‘Koshihikari’ and ‘IR64’, we performed quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis using an F2 population (selfed progeny of an F1 plant), in which heterozygous genotypes should segregate in a certain proportion in a Mendelian manner. The QTL analysis detected three significant QTLs. At one QTL (putatively Heading date 1), the ‘Koshihikari’ allele increased DTF, and at the other two QTLs (putatively Heading date 6 and Oryza sativa Pseudo-Response Regulator 37/Heading date 2), the ‘IR64’ alleles increased DTF. All alleles at these three QTLs showed partial dominance. The combination of the QTLs explained 82.2% of the total phenotypic variance of DTF in the F2 population, with contribution from epistasis between QTLs. There was no difference between DTFs of F1 hybrids and heterozygous genotypes for the three QTLs. Our results demonstrated that the complementary effects accompanied by epistasis of at least three QTLs were responsible for late flowering in F1 hybrids.


Complementary effect Days-to-flowering Oryza sativa QTL analysis Transgressive phenotype 



The authors thank Ms. Kanako Takeyama for her assistance. This work was supported by a grant from the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries of Japan (Integrated Research Project for Plant, Insect and Animal using Genome Technology QT-1005 and Genomics for Agricultural Innovation NVR-0001 to M. Y.).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

All authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

10709_2019_75_MOESM1_ESM.xlsx (91 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (XLSX 91 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Crop ScienceNational Agriculture and Food Research Organization (NARO)TsukubaJapan

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