Contemporary and historic patterns of intraspecific diversity in Indian anchovy, Stolephorus indicus, from Indian peninsular waters
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We analyzed intraspecific diversity of Indian anchovy, Stolephorus indicus, a commercially and ecologically important species, using mitochondrial DNA markers so as to derive insights into population structuring and historical demography. Analyses were carried out on 128 and 138 individuals collected from 5 locations along the range of distribution using mitochondrial ATPase (843 bp) and COI (663 bp) sequences respectively. Significant connectivity and gene flow was detected among fishes collected from all the geographic locations as indicated by lack of structuring in Bayesian clustering analysis along with insignificant ΦST values. Oceanographic features of the Bay of Bengal, Arabian Sea and Andaman Sea may be favorable for the dispersal of anchovy larvae and subsequent gene flow. Historical demographic analyses indicated a demographic and spatial expansion taken place approximately during 125,000 years before present, the Pleistocene epoch. Indian Ocean witnessed emergence of upwelling events and consequent increase in productivity during the Pleistocene epoch causing a demographic and spatial expansion of anchovies. Management measures for this species should be devised considering it as a single stock along its entire range of distribution.
KeywordsDemographic history Genetic stock structure Mitochondrial DNA markers Panmixia
This work was funded by the Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) and carried out as part of the institute project MBTD/GEN/28 at Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute, India. The authors would like to thank Dr. P. Vijayagopal (Head, Marine Biotechnology Division, CMFRI), and Director, CMFRI for providing facilities for carrying out this work. Wilson Sebastian received Senior Research Fellowship from ICAR-NICRA project. We also acknowledge the help rendered by Dr. Muktha Menon, Scientist, CMFRI, Dr. Shardul Gangan, Assistant Professor, Taraporewala marine biological research station and Dr. G.B. Sreekanth, ICAR - CCARI in collecting samples of anchovy.
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Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed by the authors.
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