Advertisement

Genetica

, Volume 145, Issue 1, pp 127–130 | Cite as

Development and characterization of twelve microsatellite markers for Porphyra linearis Greville

  • Elena Varela-ÁlvarezEmail author
  • Cristina Paulino
  • Ester A. Serrão
Short Communication

Abstract

The genus Porphyra (and its sister genus Pyropia) contains important red algal species that are cultivated and/or harvested for human consumption, sustaining a billion-dollar aquaculture industry. A vast amount of research has been focused on species of this genus, including studies on genetics and genomics among other areas. Twelve novel microsatellite markers were developed here for Porphyra linearis. Markers were characterized using 32 individuals collected from four natural populations of P. linearis with total heterozygosity varying from 0.098 to 0.916. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 18. All markers showed cross amplification with Porphyra umbilicalis and/or Porphyra dioica. These polymorphic microsatellite markers are useful for investigating population genetic diversity and differentiation in P. linearis and may become useful for other genetic research on the reproductive biology of this important species.

Keywords

Porphyra Microsatellite markers Red algae Population structure North Atlantic 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Funded by FCT (Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia) Postdoctoral fellowship (SFRH/BPD/109452/2015) to EVÁ, and the following FCT Projects: (NORIGENOMICS—PTDC/MAR/099698/2008) to EVÁ, EXTANT—EXCL/AAG-GLO/0661/2012 to ES, and UID/Multi/04326/2013 to CCMAR. We also would like to thank (1) Travis Glenn for the help/comments with the design of the probes for the enrichments; (2) Mafalda Afonso and Ana Balau for laboratory work; (3) Henning Steen (Havforskningsinstituttet, Institute of Marine Research, Norway) and (4) ASSEMBLE network (European Community) by the Remote access platform (ASSEMBLE Grant Agreement No. 227799) for providing samples; and (4) the following people who helped with sample collection: Liam Cronin, Ignacio Bárbara, Estibaliz Berecibar, Tânia Pereira, Dagmar Stengel, Anna Soler, and Fabio Rindi.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Billote N, Lagoda P, Risterucci A, Baurens F (1999) Microsatellite enriched libraries: applied methodology for the development of SSR markers in tropical crops. Fruits 54:277–288Google Scholar
  2. Blouin NA, Brodie JA, Grossman AC, Xu P, Brawley SH (2011) Porphyra: a marine crop shaped by stress. Trends Plant Sci 16(1):29–37CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Faircloth BC (2008) Msatcommander: detection of microsatellite repeat arrays and automated, locus-specific primer design. Mol Ecol Resour 8:92–94CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Freshwater DW, Fredericq S, Butler BS, Hommersand MH, Chase MW (1994) A gene phylogeny of the red algae (Rhodophyta) based on plastid rbcL. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 91:7281–7285CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. Gabrielson PW, Garbary DJ, Scagel RF (1985) The nature of the ancestral red alga: inferences from a cladistic analysis. Biosystems 18:335–346CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Glenn TC, Schable NA (2005) Isolating microsatellite DNA loci. In: Zimmer EA, Roalson EH (eds) Methods in Enzymology 395, Molecular Evolution: Producing the Biochemical Data, Part B. Academic Press, San Diego, pp 202–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Guiry MD, Guiry GM (2016) AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. (WWW document) URL http://www.algaebase.org. Accessed 27 Sept 2016
  8. Hong YK, Coury DA, Polne-fuller M, Bibor A (1992) Lithium chloride extraction of DNA from the seaweed Porphyra perforata (Rhodophyta). J Phycol 28:717–720CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Kong FN, Mao YX, Yang H, Qu HJ, Yan XH, Wang L (2009) Genetic analysis of Porphyra yezoensis using microsatellite markers. Plant Mol Biol Rep 27:496–502CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Levine IA (1999) Marine agronomy in the maritimes: Reality or fantasy? Bull Aquac Assoc Can 99(1):31–33Google Scholar
  11. Matschiner M, Salzburger W (2009) Tandem: integrating automated allele binning into genetics and genomics workflows. Bioinformatics 25:1982–1983CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. McHugh DJ (2003) A guide to the seaweed industry. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper No. 441, Rome, p 105Google Scholar
  13. Meirmans PG, Van Tienderen PH (2004) Genotype and Genodive: two programs for the analysis of genetic diversity of asexual organisms. Mol Ecol Notes 4:792–794CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Mumford TF, Miura A (1988) Porphyra as food: cultivation and economics. In: Lemby CA, Walland JR (eds) Algae and human affairs. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 87–117Google Scholar
  15. Nei M (1987) Molecular evolutionary genetics. Columbia University Press, New York, p 512Google Scholar
  16. Ragan MA, Bird CJ, Rice EL, Gutell RR, Murphy CA, Singh RK (1994) A molecular phylogeny of the marine red algae (Rhodophyta) based on the nuclear small-subunit rRNA gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 91:7276–7280CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. Rhatigan P (2009) Irish seaweed kitchen. The comprehensive guide to healthy everyday cooking with seaweeds. Ed. Booklink. p 287Google Scholar
  18. Rozen S, Skaletsky HJ (2000) Primer 3 on the www for general users and for biologist programmers. In: Krawetz S, Misener S (eds) Bioinformatics methods and protocols: methods in molecular biology. Human Press, Totowa, pp 365–386Google Scholar
  19. Sahoo D, Tang X, Yarish C (2002) Porphyra—the economic seaweed as a new experimental system. Curr Sci 83:1313–1316Google Scholar
  20. Sutherland J, Lindstrom S, Nelson W, Brodie J, Lynch M, Hwang M, Choi H, Miyata M, Kikuchi N, Oliveira MC, Farr T, Neefus C, Mols-Mortensen A, Milstein D, Miller KM (2011) A new look at an ancient order: generic revision of the Bangiales (Rhodophyta). J Phycol 47:1131–1151CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. van Oppen MJH, Olsen JL, Stam WT (1995) Genetic variation within and among North Atlantic and Baltic populations of the benthic alga Phycodrys rubens (Rhodophyta). Eur J Phycol 30:251–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Varela-Álvarez E (2002) Phenology, life history and genetics of Porphyra linearis Greville, a candidate for nori mariculture in Europe. Ph.D. thesis unpublished dissertation, National University of Ireland, Galway, p 219Google Scholar
  23. Varela-Álvarez E, Stengel DB, Guiry MD (2004) The use of image processing in assessing conchocelis growth and conchospore production in Porphyra linearis. Phycologia 43:282–287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Varela-Álvarez E, Andreakis N, Lago-Lestón A, Pearson GA, Serrão EA, Procaccini G, Duarte CM, Marbá N (2006) Genomic DNA isolation from green and brown algae (Caulerpales and Fucales) for microsatellite library construction. J Phycol 42:741–745CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Yoon HS, Muller KM, Sheath RG, Ott FD, Bhattacharya D (2006) Defining the major lineages of red algae (Rhodophyta). J Phycol 42:482–492CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Zuo Z, Wang G, Cao X, Su Y, Liao L, Chen Y (2007) Isolation and characterization of microsatellite loci from a commercial cultivar of Porphyra haitanensis. Mol Ecol Notes 7:522–524. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-8286.2006.01642.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centro de Ciências do Mar, Laboratório Associado, (CCMAR-CIMAR)Universidade do AlgarveFaroPortugal

Personalised recommendations