Genetic diversity and structure of Brazilian ginger germplasm (Zingiber officinale) revealed by AFLP markers
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Ginger is a vegetable with medicinal and culinary properties widely cultivated in the Southern and Southeastern Brazil. The knowledge of ginger species’ genetic variability is essential to direct correctly future studies of conservation and genetic improvement, but in Brazil, little is known about this species’ genetic variability. In this study, we analyzed the genetic diversity and structure of 55 Brazilian accessions and 6 Colombian accessions of ginger, using AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism) molecular markers. The molecular characterization was based on 13 primers combinations, which generated an average of 113.5 polymorphic loci. The genetic diversity estimates of Nei (Hj), Shannon–Weiner index (I) and an effective number of alleles (n e ) were greater in the Colombian accessions in relation to the Brazilian accessions. The analysis of molecular variance showed that most of the genetic variation occurred between the two countries while in the Brazilian populations there is no genetic structure and probably each region harbors 100 % of genetic variation found in the samples. The bayesian model-based clustering and the dendrogram using the dissimilarity’s coefficient of Jaccard were congruent with each other and showed that the Brazilian accessions are highly similar between themselves, regardless of the geographic region of origin. We suggested that the exploration of the interspecific variability and the introduction of new varieties of Z.officinale are viable alternatives for generating diversity in breeding programs in Brazil. The introduction of new genetic materials will certainly contribute to a higher genetic basis of such crop.
KeywordsClustering Molecular characterization Population structure AFLP marker Genetic resources Zingiber officinale
The author Eleonora Zambrano Blanco thanks the Program for Partner Graduate Students (PEC-PG) of Brazilian Federal Agency for Support and Evaluation of graduate education (CAPES) for the scholarship granted. The authors thank the Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq) for the productivity scholarships and to Mrs. Leila Felipini for the translation of this article.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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