, Volume 125, Issue 2–3, pp 271–281 | Cite as

Variability of Wing Size and Shape in Three Populations of a Recent Brazilian Invader, Zaprionus indianus (Diptera: Drosophilidae), from Different Habitats



Zaprionus indianus (Diptera: Drosophilidae) is an African species that was introduced in Brazil near the end of the 1990’s decade. To evaluate the adaptive potential of morphological traits in natural populations of this recently introduced species, we have investigated wing size and shape variation at Rio de Janeiro populations only two years after the first record of Z. indianus in Brazil. Significant genetic differences among populations from three distinct ecological habitats were detected. The heritability and evolvability estimates show that, even with the population bottleneck that should have occurred during the invasion event, an appreciable amount of additive genetic variation for wing size and shape was retained. Our results also indicated a greater influence of environmental variation on wing size than on wing shape. The importance of quantitative genetic variability and plasticity in the successful establishment and dispersal of Z. indianus in the Brazilian territory is then discussed.


adaptation bioinvasion evolvability genetic variability morphological variability Zaprionusindianus 



large radius of the ellipse


Analysis on Variance


Atlantic rain forest area – Floresta da Tijuca


small axe of the ellipse


offspring – parent covariance


coefficient of additive genetic variance


degrees of freedom


first generation of individuals raised in the laboratory; offspring of wild-caught females


second generation of individuals raised in the laboratory


narrow sense heritability


evolvability measured as the ratio between additive genetic variance and the square of the mean value of the trait – VA2


mean square






first principal component


second principal component


principal component analysis


principal component analysis based on all first generation laboratory-reared individuals of the three collection sites


principal component analysis based on all wild-caught individuals of the three collection sites


principal component analysis based on all individuals used for laboratory heritability estimates – G1 parents and G2 offspring


principal component analysis based on all individuals used for cross-environment heritability estimates – wild-caught females and G1 offspring of the HIE sample


correlation coefficient


genetic correlation coefficient


Restinga – open shrub vegetation area


wing shape defined as b/a


human impact environment


wing size defined as √(b*a)


additive genetic variance


phenotypic variance


trait mean


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Copyright information

© Springer 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Departamento de Genética, Instituto de BiologiaUniversidade Federal do Rio de JaneiroRio de JaneiroBrazil

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