Advertisement

GeoJournal

pp 1–16 | Cite as

Contemporary patterns and issues of school segregation and white flight in U.S. metropolitan areas: towards spatial inquiries

  • Charlie H. ZhangEmail author
  • Matt Ruther
Article
  • 39 Downloads

Abstract

The geography of education issues has long been an under-researched area in geography literature. This article reviews studies on school segregation and white flight and emphasizes the importance of investigating these educational issues within U.S. metropolitan areas. We discuss the characteristics of school segregation and white flight as a consequence of contemporary educational policies and the increasing diversity of public school populations. In consideration of the intrinsic geographic nature of the aforementioned educational phenomena, we call for spatial social science research to explore new trends and patterns of white flight and school segregation in U.S. metropolitan contexts using advanced geospatial approaches as location-referenced educational data become increasingly available.

Keywords

School segregation White flight Demographic change Metropolitan areas Spatial analysis 

Notes

Funding

This study was funded by a University of Louisville internal research grant.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Informed consent

This research does not involve human participants and/or animals.

References

  1. Aaron, J. S. (2010). The school district boundary problem. The Urban Lawyer,42(3), 495–548.Google Scholar
  2. Allison, R., & Wells, A. S. (2013). School choice policies and racial segregation: Where white parents’ good intentions, anxiety, and privilege collide. American Journal of Education,119(2), 261–293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anselin, L. (1988). Spatial econometrics. Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Anselin, L., Syabri, I., & Kho, Y. (2006). GeoDa: An introduction to spatial data analysis. Geographical Analysis,38(1), 5–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Armor, D. J. (1995). Forced justice: School desegregation and the law. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  6. Aud, S., Hussar, W., Kena, G., Bianco, K., Frohlich, L., Kemp, J., et al. (2011). The condition of education 2011. NCES 2011-033. Washington: National Center for Education Statistics.Google Scholar
  7. Ayscue, J. B., Siegel-Hawley, G., Kucsera, J., & Woodward, B. (2016). School segregation and resegregation in Charlotte and Raleigh, 1989–2010. Educational Policy,32(1), 3–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bankston, C. L., III, & Caldas, S. J. (2002). A troubled dream: The promise and failure of school desegregation in Louisiana. Louisiana: ERIC.Google Scholar
  9. Baum-Snow, N., & Lutz, B. F. (2011). School desegregation, school choice, and changes in residential location patterns by race. The American Economic Review,101(7), 3019–3046.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bell, C. (2009). Geography in parental choice. American Journal of Education,115(4), 493–521.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Berube, A., Frey, W. H., Friedhoff, A., Garr, E., Istrate, E., Kneebone, E., et al. (2010). State of metropolitan America: On the front lines of demographic transformation. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution.Google Scholar
  12. Betts, J. R., & Fairlie, R. W. (2001). Explaining ethnic, racial, and immigrant differences in private school attendance. Journal of Urban Economics,50(1), 26–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Betts, J. R., & Fairlie, R. W. (2003). Does immigration induce ‘native flight’ from public schools into private schools? Journal of Public Economics,87(5–6), 987–1012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bifulco, R., Ladd, H. F., & Ross, S. L. (2009). Public school choice and integration evidence from Durham, North Carolina. Social Science Research,38(1), 71–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Billingham, C. M. (2015). Within-district racial segregation and the elusiveness of white student return to urban public schools. Urban Education, 0042085915618713.Google Scholar
  16. Billingham, C. M., & Hunt, M. O. (2016). School racial composition and parental choice new evidence on the preferences of white parents in the United States. Sociology of Education,89(2), 99–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bischoff, K. (2008). School district fragmentation and racial residential segregation. Urban Affairs Review,44(2), 182–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bogart, W. T., & Cromwell, B. A. (2000). How much is a neighborhood school worth? Journal of urban Economics,47(2), 280–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Boser, U., & Baffour, P. (2017). Isolated and segregated. In Center for American Progress.Google Scholar
  20. Boustan, L. P. (2012). School desegregation and urban change: Evidence from city boundaries. American Economic Journal: Applied Economics,4(1), 85–108.Google Scholar
  21. Brasington, D., & Haurin, D. R. (2006). Educational outcomes and house values: a test of the value added approach. Journal of Regional Science,46(2), 245–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Brown, L. A., & Chung, S.-Y. (2006). Spatial segregation, segregation indices and the geographical perspective. Population, Space, and Place,12(2), 125–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Burdick-Will, J., & Logan, J. R. (2017). Schools at the rural-urban boundary: Blurring the divide? The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science,672(1), 185–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Caldas, S. J., & Bankston, C. L. (2005). Forced to fail: The paradox of school desegregation. Westport: Greenwood Publishing Group.Google Scholar
  25. Carlson, D., Bell, E., Lenard, M. A., Cowen, J. M., & McEachin, A. (2019). Socioeconomic-based school assignment policy and racial segregation levels: Evidence from the wake county public school system. American Educational Research Journal, 0002831219851729.Google Scholar
  26. Caro, F., Shirabe, T., Guignard, M., & Weintraub, A. (2004). School redistricting: embedding GIS tools with integer programming. The Journal of the Operational Research Society,55(8), 836–849.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Chapman, T. K. (2018). Segregation, desegregation, segregation: Charter school options as a return to separate and unequal schools for urban families AU—Chapman, Thandeka K. Peabody Journal of Education,93(1), 38–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Cho, W. K. T., & Gimpel, J. G. (2012). Geographic information systems and the spatial dimensions of American politics. Annual Review of Political Science,15, 443–460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Chodrow, P. S. (2017). Structure and information in spatial segregation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences,114(44), 11591–11596.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Church, R. L., & Schoepfle, O. B. (1993). The choice alternative to school assignment. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design,20(4), 447–457.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Clark, W. A. (1986). Residential segregation in American cities: A review and interpretation. Population Research and Policy Review,5(2), 95–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Clark, W. A. V. (1987). School desegregation and white flight: A reexamination and case study. Social Science Research,16(3), 211–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Clotfelter, C. T. (1976). School desegregation,” tipping,” and private school enrollment. Journal of Human Resources,11(1), 28–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Clotfelter, C. T. (1999). Public segregation in metropolitan areas. Land Economics,75(4), 487–504.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Clotfelter, C. T. (2001). Are Whites still fleeing? Racial patterns and enrollment shifts in urban public schools, 1987–1996. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management,20(2), 199–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Clotfelter, C. T. (2004a). After brown: The rise and retreat of school desegregation. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  37. Clotfelter, C. T. (2004b). Private Schools, segregation, and the southern states. Peabody Journal of Education,79(2), 74–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Clotfelter, C. T., Ladd, H. F., & Vigdor, J. L. (2002). Segregation and resegregation in North Carolina’s public school classrooms. NCL Review,81(4), 1463.Google Scholar
  39. Cobb, C. D., & Glass, G. V. (2009). School choice in a post-desegregation world. Peabody Journal of Education,84(2), 262–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Coleman, J. S., Kelly, S. D., & More, J. A. (1975). Trends in school segregation, 1968–73. Washington: DC Urban Institute Press.Google Scholar
  41. Cooper, B. S., & Sureau, J. (2007). The politics of homeschooling: New developments, new challenges. Educational Policy,21(1), 110–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Corwin, R. G., & Schneider, J. (2005). The school choice hoax: Fixing America’s schools. Westport: Greenwood Publishing Group.Google Scholar
  43. Crowder, K., & South, S. J. (2008). Spatial dynamics of white flight: The effects of local and extralocal racial conditions on neighborhood out-migration. American Sociological Review,73(5), 792–812.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Dawkins, C. J. (2004). Measuring the spatial pattern of residential segregation. Urban Studies,41(4), 833–851.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Delmelle, E. M., Thill, J.-C., Peeters, D., & Thomas, I. (2014). A multi-period capacitated school location problem with modular equipment and closest assignment considerations. Journal of Geographical Systems,16(3), 263–286.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Elacqua, G. (2012). The impact of school choice and public policy on segregation: Evidence from Chile. International Journal of Educational Development,32(3), 444–453.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Elhorst, J. P. (2003). Specification and estimation of spatial panel data models. International Regional Science Review,26(3), 244–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Ellen, I. G., O’Regan, K., & Conger, D. (2009). Immigration and urban schools: The dynamics of demographic change in the nation’s largest school district. Education and Urban Society,41(3), 295–316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Erickson, A. T. (2016). Making the unequal metropolis: School desegregation and its limits. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Fairlie, R. W., & Resch, A. M. (2002). Is there “white flight” into private schools? Evidence from the national educational longitudinal survey. The Review of Economics and Statistics,84(1), 21–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Farley, R., Richards, T., & Wurdock, C. (1980). School desegregation and white flight: An investigation of competing models and their discrepant findings. Sociology of Education,53(3), 123–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Feitosa, F. F., Câmara, G., Monteiro, A. M. V., Koschitzki, T., & Silva, M. P. S. (2007). Global and local spatial indices of urban segregation. International Journal of Geographical Information Science,21(3), 299–323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Fiel, J. E. (2013). Decomposing school resegregation social closure, racial imbalance, and racial isolation. American Sociological Review,78(5), 828–848.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Fiel, J. E., & Zhang, Y. (2019). With all deliberate speed: The reversal of court-ordered school desegregation, 1970–2013. American Journal of Sociology,124(6), 1685–1719.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Fischer, C. S., Stockmayer, G., Stiles, J., & Hout, M. (2004). Distinguishing the geographic levels and social dimensions of U.S. metropolitan segregation, 1960–2000. Demography,41(1), 37–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Formisano, R. P. (2004). Boston against busing: Race, class, and ethnicity in the 1960s and 1970s. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Fotheringham, A. S., Charlton, M. E., & Brunsdon, C. (2001). Spatial variations in school performance: A local analysis using geographically weighted regression. Geographical and Environmental Modelling,5(1), 43–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Frankel, D. M., & Volij, O. (2011). Measuring school segregation. Journal of Economic Theory,146(1), 1–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Frankenberg, E. (2009). Splintering school districts: Understanding the link between segregation and fragmentation. Law and Social Inquiry,34(4), 869–909.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Frankenberg, E., & Kotok, S. (2013). Demography and educational politics in the suburban marketplace. Peabody Journal of Education,88(1), 112–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Franklin, A. D., & Koenigsberg, E. (1973). Computed school assignments in a large district. Operations Research,21(2), 413–426.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Frazier, J. W., & Tettey-Fio, E. (2006). Race, ethnicity, and place in a changing America. Global Academic Publishing.Google Scholar
  63. Frey, W. H. (1979). Central city white flight: Racial and nonracial causes. American Sociological Review,44(3), 425–448.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Frey, W. H. (2012). New racial segregation measures for large metropolitan areas: Analysis of the 1990–2010 Decennial Censuses. Ann Arbor: Brookings Institution Population Studies Center, University of Michigan.Google Scholar
  65. Frey, W. H. (2014). Diversity explosion: How new racial demographics are remaking America. Washington: Brookings Institution Press.Google Scholar
  66. Garcia, D. R. (2008). The impact of school choice on racial segregation in charter schools. Educational Policy,22(6), 805–829.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Gemello, J. M., & Osman, J. W. (1984). Estimating the demand for private school enrollment. American Journal of Education,92(3), 262–279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Goldring, E. B., Cohen-Vogel, L., Smrekar, C., & Taylor, C. (2006). Schooling closer to home: Desegregation policy and neighborhood contexts. American Journal of Education,112(3), 335–362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Goldring, E. B., & Hausman, C. S. (1999). Reasons for parental choice of urban schools. Journal of Education Policy,14(5), 469–490.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Gordon, C. (2009). Mapping decline: St. Louis and the fate of the American city. Phialdelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.Google Scholar
  71. Grady, S., & Darden, J. (2012). Spatial methods to study local racial residential segregation and infant health in Detroit, Michigan. Annals of the Association of American Geographers,102(5), 922–931.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Green, T. L. (2015). Places of inequality, places of possibility: Mapping “opportunity in geography” across urban school-communities. The Urban Review,47(4), 717–741.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Guo, D., & Wang, H. (2011). Automatic region building for spatial analysis. Transactions in GIS,1(15), 29–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Hellerstein, J. K., & Neumark, D. (2008). Workplace segregation in the United States: Race, ethnicity, and skill. The Review of Economics and Statistics,90(3), 459–477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Henig, J. R. (1995). Rethinking school choice: Limits of the market metaphor. Princeton: Princeton University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Henig, J. R., & Sugarman, S. D. (1999). The nature and extent of school choice. School Choice and Social Controversy: Politics, Policy, and Law,13, 29.Google Scholar
  77. Hess, F. M., & Leal, D. L. (2001). Quality, race, and the urban education marketplace. Urban Affairs Review,37(2), 249–266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Hochschild, J. L., Scovronick, N., & Scovronick, N. B. (2004). The American dream and the public schools. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  79. Hogrebe, M. C., & Tate, W. F. (2012). Geospatial perspective toward a visual political literacy project in education, health, and human services. Review of Research in Education,36(1), 67–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Hussar, W. J., & Bailey, T. M. (2014). Projections of education statistics to 2022. Southwest: National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education.Google Scholar
  81. Johnson, R. C. (2019). Children of the dream: Why school integration works. New York, NY: Basic Books and Russell Sage Foundation Press.Google Scholar
  82. Kaplan, D. H., & Douzet, F. (2011). Research in ethnic segregation III: Segregation outcomes. Urban Geography,32(4), 589–605.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Kaplan, D. H., & Woodhouse, K. (2004). Research in ethnic segregation I: Causal factors. Urban Geography,25(6), 579–585.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Kelly, M. G. (2019). A map is more than just a graph: Geospatial educational research and the importance of historical context. AERA Open,5(1), 2332858419833346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Kena, G., Musu-Gillette, L., Robinson, J., Wang, X., Rathbun, A., Zhang, J., et al. (2015). The condition of education 2015. NCES 2015-144. Washington: National Center for Education Statistics.Google Scholar
  86. Kolko, J. (2014). Where private school enrollment is highest and lowest across the U.S. In Atlantic. CityLab.Google Scholar
  87. Krogstad, M. J., & Fry, R. (2014). Department of Education projects public schools will be ‘majority-minority’ this fall. Washington: Pew Research Center.Google Scholar
  88. Kruse, K. M. (2013). White flight: Atlanta and the making of modern conservatism. Princeton: Princeton University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Kye, S. H. (2018). The persistence of white flight in middle-class suburbia. Social Science Research,72(May), 38–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Ledwith, V., & Clark, W. A. V. (2007). The effect of the residential mosaic and “white flight” on public school composition: Evidence from Los Angeles County. Urban Geography,28(2), 160–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Lee, B. A., Firebaugh, G., Matthews, S. A., Reardon, S. F., Farrell, C. R., & O’Sullivan, D. (2008). Beyond the census tract: Patterns and determinants of racial segregation at multiple geographic scales. American Sociological Review,73(5), 766–791.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Lemberg, D. S. (2004). Spatial analysis and modeling for the school district planning problem. In Worldminds: Geographical perspectives on 100 problems (pp. 119–124). Springer.Google Scholar
  93. Lemberg, D. S., & Church, R. L. (2000). The school boundary stability problem over time. Socio-Economic Planning Sciences,34(3), 159–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Levy, T. (2009). Homeschooling and racism. Journal of Black Studies,39(6), 905–923.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Lichter, D. T., Parisi, D., & Taquino, M. C. (2015). Toward a new macro-segregation? Decomposing segregation within and between metropolitan cities and suburbs. American Sociological Review,80(4), 843–873.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Liebowitz, D. D., & Page, L. C. (2014). Does school policy affect housing choices? Evidence from the end of desegregation in Charlotte-Mecklenburg. American Educational Research Journal,51(4), 671–703.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Lloyd, C. D., & Shuttleworth, I. G. (2014). Social-spatial segregation: Concepts, processes and outcomes. Bristol: Policy Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Logan, J. R. (2013). The persistence of segregation in the 21(st) century metropolis. City & Community.  https://doi.org/10.1111/cico.12021.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Logan, J. R., & Burdick-Will, J. (2017). School segregation and disparities in urban, suburban, and rural areas. The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science,674(1), 199–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Logan, J. R., Minca, E., & Adar, S. (2012). The geography of inequality: Why separate means unequal in American public schools. Sociology of Education,85(3), 287–301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Logan, J. R., & Oakley, D. (2004). The continuing legacy of the brown decision: Court action and school segregation, 1960–2000. Albany: University at Albany, State University of New York, Lewis Mumford Center for Comparative Urban and Regional Research.Google Scholar
  102. Logan, J. R., Oakley, D., & Stowell, J. (2008). School desegregation in metropolitan areas, 1970-2000: The impacts of policy choices on public education. American Journal of Sociology,113(6), 1611–1644.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Logan, J. R., Zhang, W., & Oakley, D. (2017). Court orders, white flight, and school district segregation, 1970–2010. Social Forces,95(3), 1049–1075.Google Scholar
  104. Logan, J. R., Zhang, W., & Xu, H. (2010). Applying spatial thinking in social science research. GeoJournal,75(1), 15–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Lord, J. D. (1977). Spatial perspectives on school desegregation and busing. Washington: Association of American Geographers.Google Scholar
  106. Lubienski, C., & Dougherty, J. (2009). Introduction: Mapping educational opportunity: Spatial analysis and school choices. American Journal of Education,115(4), 485–491.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Lubienski, C., & Lee, J. (2017). Geo-spatial analyses in education research: the critical challenge and methodological possibilities. Geographical Research,55(1), 89–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Mann, B., & Baker, D. P. (2019). Cyber charter schools and growing resource inequality among public districts: Geospatial patterns and consequences of a statewide choice policy in Pennsylvania, 2002–2014. American Journal of Education,125(2), 147–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Marcotte, D. E., & Dalane, K. (2019). Socioeconomic segregation and school choice in American public schools. Educational Researcher,48(8), 493–503.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Martin, D., & Atkinson, P. (2001). Investigating the spatial linkage of primary school performance and catchment characteristics. Geographical and Environmental Modelling,5(1), 67–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Massey, D. S., & Denton, N. A. (1988). The dimension of residential segregation. Social Forces,67(2), 281–315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Matthews, S. A. (2008). The salience of neighborhood: Some lessons from sociology. American Journal of Preventive Medicine,34(3), 257–259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Matthews, S. A., & Parker, D. M. (2013). Progress in spatial demography. Demographic Research,28(10), 271–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. McDermott, K., Bowles, S., & Churchill, A. (2003). Mapping school choice in Massachusetts: Data and findings 2003. The Boston Foundation, Massachusetts: Center for Education Research & Policy at MassINC.Google Scholar
  115. McKibben, J. N. (2006). School district planning and the 2010 decennial census: Data uses and needs. Journal of Economic and Social Measurement,31(3–4), 221–232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Minnesota Population Center. (2011). National Historical Geographic Information System: Version 2.0. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota.Google Scholar
  117. Mordechay, K., & Orfield, G. (2017). Demographic transformation in a policy vacuum: The changing face of U.S. metropolitan society and challenges for public schools. The Educational Forum,81(2), 193–203.Google Scholar
  118. Morrill, R. (1996). Spatial engineering and geographical integrity: An editorial commentary and call for research. Political Geography,15(1), 95–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Morrill, R. L. (1989). School busing and demographic change. Urban Geography,10(4), 336–354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Murray, T. J. (2016). Public or private? The influence of immigration on native schooling choices in the United States. Economics of Education Review,53(C), 268–283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. National Center for Education Statistics, U. S. D. O. E. (2015) Private School Universe Survey (PSS), 2011–12; Common Core of Data (CCD), “Public Elementary/Secondary School Universe Survey,” 2011–12, Provisional Version 2a.Google Scholar
  122. November, S. M., Cromley, R. G., & Cromley, E. K. (1996). Multi-objective analysis of school district regionalization alternatives in Connecticut. The Professional Geographer,48(1), 1–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Oka, M., & Wong, D. W. S. (2014). Capturing the two dimensions of residential segregation at the neighborhood level for health research. Frontiers in Public Health,2, 118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Openshaw, S., & Taylor, P. J. (1981). The Modifiable areal unit problem. In: N. Wrigley & R. Bennett (Eds.), Quantitative Geography: A British View, (pp. 60–69). Routledge and Kegan Paul, London.Google Scholar
  125. Orfield, G., & Eaton, S. E. (1997). Dismantling desegregation: The quiet reversal of Brown v. Board of Education: The New Press.Google Scholar
  126. Owens, A. (2017). Racial residential segregation of school-age children and adults: The role of schooling as a segregating force. RSF The Russell Sage Foundation Journal of the Social Sciences,3(2), 63–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Owens, A., Reardon, S. F., & Jencks, C. (2016). Income segregation between schools and school districts. American Educational Research Journal,53(4), 1159–1197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Páez, A., & Scott, D. M. (2004). Spatial statistics for urban analysis: a review of techniques with examples. GeoJournal,61(1), 53–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Perry, P. (2002). Shades of white: White kids and racial identities in high school. Durham: Duke University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Raffel, J. A. (1998). Historical dictionary of school segregation and desegregation: The American experience. Westport: Greenwood Publishing Group.Google Scholar
  131. Reardon, S. F., Grewal, E. T., Kalogrides, D., & Greenberg, E. (2012). Brown fades: The end of court-ordered school desegregation and the resegregation of American public schools. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management,31(4), 876–904.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Reardon, S. F., Mathews, S. A., O’Sullivan, D., & Lee, B. A. (2008). The geographic scale of metropolitan racial segregation. Demography,45(3), 489–514.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Reardon, S. F., & O’Sullivan, D. (2004). Measures of spatial segregation. Sociologocal Methodology,34(1), 121–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Reardon, S. F., & Owens, A. (2014). 60 Years after Brown: Trends and consequences of school segregation. Annual Review of Sociology,40, 199–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Reardon, S. F., & Yun, J. T. (2002). Integrating neighborhoods, segregating schools: The retreat from school desegregation in the South, 1990–2000. NCL Rev,81(4), 1563.Google Scholar
  136. Reardon, S. F., Yun, J. T., & Eitle, T. M. (2000). The changing structure of school segregation: measurement and evidence of multi-racial metropolitan area school segregation, 1989–1995. Demography,37(3), 351–364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Reber, S. (2005). Desegregating America’s schools: Successes and failures in integration since Brown. Journal of Human Resources,40(3), 559–590.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Reber, S. (2011). From separate and unequal to integrated and equal? School desegregation and school finance in Louisiana. The Review of Economics and Statistics,93(2), 404–415.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Renzulli, L. A., & Evans, L. (2005). School choice, charter schools, and white flight. Social Problems,52(3), 398–418.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Richards, M. P. (2014). The gerrymandering of school attendance zones and the segregation of public schools: A geospatial analysis. American Educational Research Journal,51(6), 1119–1157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Rivkin, S. G. (1994). Residential segregation and school integration. Sociology of Education,67(4), 279–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Rivkin, S. (2016). Desegregation since the Coleman Report. Education Next,16(2), 28–38.Google Scholar
  143. Rogerson, P. A. (2010). Statistical methods for geography: A student’s guide. London: Sage Publications Ltd.Google Scholar
  144. Rossell, C. H. (1978). The effect of school integration on community integration. Journal of Education,160(2), 46–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Rossell, C. H. (2006). School desegregation in the 21st century. Charlotte: IAP.Google Scholar
  146. Rossell, C. H., & Armor, D. J. (1996). The effectiveness of school desegregation plans, 1968–1991. American Politics Quarterly,24(3), 267–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Rossell, C. H., & Hawley, W. D. (1982). Policy alternatives for minimizing white flight. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis,4(2), 205–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Rotherham, A. (2010). School of thought: Does income-based school integration work, Oct 28. Retrieved on November 25, 2019 from http://content.time.com/time/nation/article/0,8599,2027858,00.html.
  149. Rushing, W. (2017). School segregation and its discontents: Chaos and community in post–Civil Rights Memphis. Urban Education,52(1), 3–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Sandova, J. S. O. (2011). Neighborhood diversity and segregation in the Chicago metropolitan region: 1980–2000. Urban Geography,32(5), 609–640.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Saporito, S. (2009). School Choice in Black and White: Private school enrollment among racial groups, 1990–2000. Peabody Journal of Education,84(2), 172–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Saporito, S., Chavers, J., Nixon, L., & McQuiddy, M. (2007). From here to there: Methods of allocating data from census geography to socially meaningful areas. Social Science Research,36(3), 897–920.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Saporito, S., & Sohoni, D. (2006). Coloring outside the lines: Racial segregation in public schools and their attendance boundaries. Sociology of Education,79(2), 81–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Saporito, S., & Sohoni, D. (2007). Mapping educational inequality: Concentrations of poverty and poor and minority students in public schools. Social Forces,85(3), 1227–1253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Saporito, S., & Van Riper, D. (2016). Do irregularly shaped school attendance zones contribute to racial segregation or integration? Social Currents,3(1), 64–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Saporito, S., Yancey, W. L., & Louis, V. (2001). Quality, race, and the urban education marketplace reconsidered. Urban Affairs Review,37(2), 267–276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Schmidt, A. B. (1992). Private school enrollment in metropolitan areas. Public Finance Review,20(3), 298–320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Siegel-Hawley, G. (2013). Educational gerrymandering? Race and attendance boundaries in a demographically changing suburb. Harvard Educational Review,83(4), 580–612.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Siegel-Hawley, G. (2014a). Mitigating Milliken? school district boundary lines and desegregation policy in four southern metropolitan areas, 1990–2010. American Journal of Education,120(3), 391–433.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Siegel-Hawley, G. (2014b). Race, choice and Richmond public schools: New possibilities and ongoing challenges for diversity in urban districts. The Urban Review,46(4), 507–534.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Siegel-Hawley, G. (2016). When the fences come down: Twenty-first-century lessons from metropolitan school desegregation. Chapel Hill: UNC Press Books.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Smith, K. B., & Meier, K. J. (1995). Public choice in education: Markets and the demand for quality education. Political Research Quarterly,48(3), 461–478.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Smrekar, C., & Honey, N. (2015). The desegregation aims and demographic contexts of magnet schools: How parents choose and why siting policies matter. Peabody Journal of Education,90(1), 128–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Sohoni, D., & Saporito, S. (2009). Mapping school segregation: Using GIS to explore racial segregation between schools and their corresponding attendance areas. American Journal of Education,115(4), 569–600.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Stroub, K. J., & Richards, M. P. (2013). From resegregation to reintegration: Trends in the racial/ethnic segregation of metropolitan public schools, 1993–2009. American Educational Research Journal,50(3), 497–531.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Taeuber, K. E., & James, D. R. (1982). Racial segregation among public and private schools. Sociology of Education,55, 133–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Tate, W. F. (2012). Research on schools, neighborhoods, and communities: Toward civic responsibility. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield.Google Scholar
  168. Tate, W. F., & Hogrebe, M. C. (2018). Show me: Diversity and isolation indicators of spatial segregation within and across Missouri’s school districts. Peabody Journal of Education,93(1), 5–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Tiebout, C. M. (1956). A pure theory of local expenditures. The Journal of Political Economy,64(5), 412–424.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Tobler, W. R. (1970). A computer movie simulating urban growth in Detroit Region. Economic Geography,46(1), 234–240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Varady, D. P. (2005). Desegregating the city: Ghettos, enclaves, and inequality. Albany: SUNY Press.Google Scholar
  172. Voss, P., Long, D., Hammer, R., & Friedman, S. (2006). County child poverty rates in the US: A spatial regression approach. Population Research and Policy Review,25(4), 369–391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Watras, J. (2013). Politics, race, and schools: Racial integration, L954–l994. Abingdon: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Wells, A. S., & Frankenberg, E. (2007). The public schools and the challenge of the Supreme Court’s integration decision. Phi Delta Kappan,89(3), 178–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Wells, A. S., Jennifer Jellison, H., Revilla, A. T., & Atanda, A. K. (2004). How society failed school desegregation policy: Looking past the schools to understand them. Review of Research in Education,28(1), 47–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. White, M. J. (1983). The measurement of spatial segregation. American Journal of Sociology,88(5), 1008–1018.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Wong, D. W. S. (1993). Spatial indices of segregation. Urban Studies,30(3), 559–572.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Wong, D. W. S. (1998). Measuring multietnic spatial segregation. Urban Geography,19(1), 77–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Wong, D. W. S. (1999). Geostatistics as measures of spatial segregation. Urban Geography,20(7), 635–647.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Wong, D. W. S. (2004). Comparing traditional and spatial segregation measures: A spatial scale perspective. Urban Geography,25(1), 66–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Wong, D. W. S. (2005). Formulating a general spatial segregation measure. The Professional Geographer,57(2), 285–294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Wright, R., Ellis, M., Holloway, S. R., & Wong, S. (2013). Patterns of racial diversity and segregation in the United States: 1990–2010. The Professional Geographer,66(2), 173–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Wrinkle, R. D., Stewart, J., Jr., & Polinard, J. (1999). Public school quality, private schools, and race. American Journal of Political Science,43(4), 1248–1253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Yao, J., Wong, D. W. S., Bailey, N., & Minton, J. (2019). Spatial segregation measures: A methodological review. Tijdschrift voor economische en sociale geografie,110, 235–250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Zhang, H. (2008). White flight in the context of education: Evidence from South Carolina. Journal of Geography,107(6), 236–245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Zhang, H. (2011). School desegregation and white flight revisited: A spatial analysis from a metropolitan perspective. Urban Geography,32(8), 1208–1226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Zhang, H., & Cowen, D. J. (2009). Mapping academic achievement and public school choice under the No Child Left Behind legislation. Southeastern Geographer,49(1), 24–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Zoloth, B. S. (1976). Alternative measures of school segregation. Land Economics,52(3), 278–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Geography and GeosciencesUniversity of LouisvilleLouisvilleUSA
  2. 2.Department of Urban and Public AffairsUniversity of LouisvilleLouisvilleUSA

Personalised recommendations