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Land suitability analysis for maize production in Indonesia using satellite remote sensing and GIS-based multicriteria decision support system

  • Muhammad Iqbal Habibie
  • Ryozo Noguchi
  • Matsushita Shusuke
  • Tofael AhamedEmail author


Maize is one of the potential crops can help in regional food production with self-sufficiency of foods in the drought prone areas of East Java in Indonesia. The purpose of this research is to determine the lands that are suitable for sustainable maize production in some selected areas of East Java by using various spatial and remote sensing datasets. The methodology was divided into three stages: first, the Landsat 8 operational land imagery satellite datasets were processed to create layers for the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), soil-adjusted vegetation index (SAVI) and land surface temperature. For the proposed multicriteria analysis, another seven criteria: distance from roads, distance from rivers, slope, land cover, elevation levels, soil types and rainfall, were considered. Second, a spatial analysis was performed to identify highly suitable areas for maize production using a geographical extent and multicriteria analysis. Third, the criteria were determined using land suitability information for a 5-year period. The land suitability analysis with equal weight showed that 70.8% of the land (136,663 ha) was highly suitable, 26.3% of the land (50,872 ha) was moderately suitable, and 2.8% of the land (5391 ha) was marginally suitable. On the other hand, expert knowledge was also considered using the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) and indicated that 64.9% of the land (125,216 ha) was highly suitable, 30.4% of the land (58,828 ha) was moderately suitable, and 4.5% (8603 ha) of the land was marginally suitable. The yield estimation was determined for the highly suitable areas with NDVI (R2 = 77.81%) and SAVI (R2 = 72.8%). The regression analysis was incorporated to predicted yield of maize. This research recommends that satellite remote sensing, GIS and AHP-based multicriteria analysis can be extended for agricultural extension services to select suitable lands for increasing maize production.


Maize Suitability GIS Remote sensing Analytical hierarchy process Food sufficiency 



We would like to thank the University of Tsukuba for supporting this research to develop the multicriteria land suitability analysis for maize production in Indonesia. We also express our sincere thanks to the United States Geological Survey (USGS) and to Indonesian agencies, such as the Indonesia Geospatial Agency (BIG), Indonesia Statistics (BPS), and Indonesia Meteorology and Climatology Agency (BMKG) for geographical, satellite data and climate data information. We sincerely thank the Indonesia Endowment Fund for Education (LPDP) for providing a scholarship for this research to be continued in Japan. We also expressed our gratitude to Indonesian and international experts and field surveyors who participated in this research.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All publication ethics have been followed.

Informed consent

Acknowledgements and proper permission were collected for analyzing and preparing digital maps.


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© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Muhammad Iqbal Habibie
    • 1
    • 2
  • Ryozo Noguchi
    • 3
  • Matsushita Shusuke
    • 3
  • Tofael Ahamed
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Graduate School of Life and Environmental SciencesUniversity of TsukubaTsukubaJapan
  2. 2.Agency of Assessment of TechnologyCenter of Technology for Regional Resources Development (CTRRD-BPPT)JakartaIndonesia
  3. 3.Faculty of Life and Environmental SciencesUniversity of TsukubaTsukubaJapan

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