pp 1–14 | Cite as

Model-based strategic planning for strengthening mushroom entrepreneurship: insights from a sub-Himalayan Region of West Bengal, India

  • Pritha DattaEmail author
  • Soumik Das


Mushrooms are not only beneficial for health but also its production procedure makes it environment-friendly and at the same time can be an adaptation strategy for building climate resilient livelihoods. The present study explores the potentiality of mushroom cultivation in poverty-prone sub-Himalayan Cooch Behar district of West Bengal, India and also develops strategies to address the existing constraints using SWOT, TOWS, and QSPM models. SWOT analysis provides a comprehensive view of twelve internal and nine external factors present in the mushroom cultivation and marketing system. The results of Internal Factor Evaluation Matrix (2.88) and External Factor Evaluation Matrix (2.63) show, strengths and opportunities overweight weaknesses and threats; therefore, the district is well suited for mushroom cultivation. As it is a new venture, producers face difficulties mainly in terms of marketing and pest management. To enhance the current competitiveness, ten strategies are suggested. Moreover, the QSPM analysis reveals that development of strong marketing linkages, ensuring local market demand, implementation of integrated pest and disease management, and construction of scientific mushroom houses are the top four prioritized strategies. With careful management, mushroom production can become a vibrant way towards sustainable livelihood in the near future.


Mushroom cultivation and marketing SWOT TOWS QSPM 



The authors would like to express their sincere gratitude to Dr. Ayon Roy (Asst. Prof. Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya), Dr. Khurshid Alam (District Horticulture Officer, Cooch Behar), Dr. Bhaskar Roy, and Dr. Kuhu Roy (Agriculture Officer, Cooch Behar District) for their cooperation and constructive comments in developing the present manuscript. We are also grateful to the Editor-in-Chief, Professor Barney Warf and the anonymous reviewer for their critical comments and constructive suggestions. In addition, we acknowledge the University Grants Commission (Grant No. 3262/NET-JAN 2017), New Delhi, India, for financial support in the form of Junior Research Fellowship Award to carry out the research work.

Compliance with ethical standard

Conflicts of interest

The authors declared no potential conflicts of interest concerning the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Supplementary material

10708_2019_10063_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (226 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 227 kb)


  1. Ajith, T. A., & Janardhanan, K. K. (2007). Indian medicinal mushrooms as a source of antioxidant and antitumor agents. Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition, 40(3), 157–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Akhtar, K., & Prizada, S. S. (2014). SWOT analysis of agriculture sector of Pakistan. Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development, 5(11), 127–133.Google Scholar
  3. Aktar, N. (2015). Agricultural productivity and productivity regions in West Bengal. The NEHU Journal, XIII(2), 49–61.Google Scholar
  4. Alom, M. M., & Bari, M. W. (2010). Investment in mushroom cultivation at Savar Upazilla: A prospective sector for Bangladesh. ASA University Review, 4(2), 57–63.Google Scholar
  5. Ares, G., Lareo, C., & Lema, P. (2007). Modified atmosphere packaging for post harvest storage of mushrooms: A review. Fresh Produce, 1(1), 32–40.Google Scholar
  6. Barmon, B. K., Sharmin, I., Abbasi, P. K., & Mamun, A. (2012). Economics of mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) production in a selected Upazila of Bangladesh. The Agriculturists, 10(2), 77–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Biswas, M. K. (2014). Oyster mushroom cultivation: A women friendly profession for the development of rural West Bengal. International Journal of Bio-Resource & Stress Management, 5(3), 432–435.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Celik, Y., & Peker, K. (2009). Benefit/cost analysis of mushroom production for diversification of income in developing countries. Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science, 15(3), 228–237.Google Scholar
  9. Census of India. (2011). District census handbook Cooch Behar, Accessed May 25, 2018.
  10. Cheung, P. C. K. (2010). The nutritional and health benefits of mushrooms. Nutrition Bulletin, 35(4), 292–299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cooch Behar Krishi Vigyan Kendra. (2018). District profile of Cooch Behar, Available at: Accessed May 25, 2018.
  12. Das, S., & Datta, P. (2017). Regional character of crop distribution in Cooch Behar district, West Bengal: A critical analysis. Indian Journal of Spatial Science, 8(2), 52–58.Google Scholar
  13. Datta, P., & Das, S. (2019). Analysis of long-term seasonal and annual temperature trends in North Bengal, India. Spatial Information Research. Scholar
  14. David, F. R. (2011). Strategic management: Concepts and cases. New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc., Prentice Hall Publishers.Google Scholar
  15. Dayakar Rao, B., Ratnavathi, C. V., Karthikeyan, K., Biswas, P. K., Rao, S. S., Kumar, V. B. S., et al. (2004). Sweet sorghum cane for bio-fuel production: A SWOT analysis in Indian context. Report for National Research Centre for Sorghum (NRCS). Report no. 21/2004 21 December. Rajendranagar, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India.Google Scholar
  16. Department of Panchayat and Rural Development. (2005). Synopsis of BPL survey, Accessed May 25, 2018.
  17. Dhar, B. L. (2014). Changing global scenario in mushroom industry. In M. Singh (Ed.), 8th international conference on mushroom biology and mushroom products (pp. 602–605). New Delhi: ICAR, Directorate of Mushroom Research.Google Scholar
  18. Easin, M. N., Ahmed, R., Alam, M. S., Reza, M. S., & Ahmed, K. U. (2017). Mushroom cultivation as a small-scale family enterprise for the alternative income generation in rural Bangladesh. International Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, 5(1), 1–8.Google Scholar
  19. FAOSTAT. (1994–2016). Production/yield quantities of mushrooms and truffles in World and top ten producing countries, Accessed April 25, 2018.
  20. Garnevska, E., Vaughan, D. R., & Edwards, J. R. (2007). SWOT analysis of the horticultural farms in the Plovdiv region of Bulgaria. Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science, 12(3), 353–361.Google Scholar
  21. Garthinda, D., & Aldianton, L. (2012). Business strategy recommendation for warung lepak restaurant using quantitative strategic planning matrix (QSPM). The Indonesian Journal of Business Administration, 1(3), 137–145.Google Scholar
  22. Gautam, A. K., Singh, P., Mishra, D., Kumar, A., & Singh, A. P. (2014). Constraints in adoption of mushroom production enterprise. The Indian Society of Extension Education, 50(1–2), 39–41.Google Scholar
  23. Ghorbani, A., Raufirad, V., Rafiaani, P., & Azadi, H. (2015). Ecotourism sustainable development strategies using SWOT and QSPM model: A case study of KajiNamakzar wetland, South Khorasan Province, Iran. Tourism Management Perspectives, 16(4), 290–297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Goyal, R., Grewal, R. B., & Goyal, R. K. (2006). Nutritional attributes of Agaricus bisporus and Pleurotus sajor caju mushrooms. Nutrition and Health, 18(2), 179–184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Gupta, S., Summuna, B., Gupta, M., & Annepu, S. K. (2018). Edible mushrooms: Cultivation, bioactive molecules, and health benefits. In J. M. Mérillon & K. Ramawat (Eds.), Bioactive molecules in food (pp. 1–33). Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
  26. Imtiaj, A., & Rahman, A. S. (2008). Economic viability of mushrooms cultivation to poverty reduction in Bangladesh. Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems, 8(1), 93–99.Google Scholar
  27. Karthick, K., & Hamsalakshmi, H. (2017). Current scenario of mushroom industry in India. International Journal of Commerce and Management Research, 3(3), 23–26.Google Scholar
  28. Kumar, R., Tapwal, A., Pandey, S., Borah, R. K., Borah, D., & Borgohain, J. (2013). Macro-fungal diversity and nutrient content of some edible mushrooms of Nagaland, India. Nusantara Bioscience, 5(1), 1–7.Google Scholar
  29. Lakhanpal, T. N., & Rana, M. (2005). Medicinal and nutraceutical genetic resources of mushrooms. Plant Genetic Resources, 3(2), 288–303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Lee, J. S. (1999). Effects of modified atmosphere packaging on the quality of chitosan and CaCl2 coated mushroom (Agaricus bisporus). Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, 31(5), 1308–1314.Google Scholar
  31. Lee, K. L., Huang, W. C., & Teng, J. Y. (2009). Locating the competitive relation of global logistics hub using quantitative SWOT analytical method. Quality & Quantity, 43(1), 87–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Lu, W. (2010). Improved SWOT approach for conducting strategic planning in the construction industry. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 136(12), 1317–1328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Manzi, P., Aguzzi, A., & Pizzoferrato, L. (2001). Nutritional value of mushrooms widely consumed in Italy. Food Chemistry, 73(3), 321–325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Marshall, E., & Nair, N. G. (2009). Make money by growing mushrooms. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.Google Scholar
  35. Monavari, M., Karbasi, A., & Mogooee, R. (2007). Environmental strategic management. Tehran: Kavoush Qalam.Google Scholar
  36. Nasib, S., Mehta, S., Godara, A. K., & Yadav, V. P. (2008). Constraints in mushroom production technology in Haryana. Agricultural Science Digest, 28(2), 118–120.Google Scholar
  37. Netam, R. S., Yadav, S. C., Mukherjee, S. C., & Kumari, P. (2018). Cultivation of button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) under controlled condition: An initiative in Bastar Plateau of Chhattisgarh. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, 7(10), 782–787.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Olasantan, F. O. (2001). Tropical vegetables and spices: Potential value and contributions to sustainable agriculture in Nigeria. Outlook on Agriculture, 30(1), 55–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Ommani, A. R. (2011). Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) analysis for farming system businesses management: Case of wheat farmers of Shadervan District, Shoushtar Township, Iran. African Journal of Business Management, 5(22), 9448–9454.Google Scholar
  40. Oseni, J. O. (2007). Economic analysis of mushroom marketing as a copping strategy for poverty reduction in Ondo State, Nigeria. In K. J. Ahmed (Ed.), 8th African crop science society conference on, El-Minia, Egypt, 27–31 October 2007 (pp. 1255–1260).Google Scholar
  41. Patel, S., & Goyal, A. (2012). Recent developments in mushrooms as anti-cancer therapeutics: A review. 3 Biotech, 2(1), 1–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Pattnaik, T., & Mishra, S. (2008). Constraints in adoption of mushroom cultivation technology. Asian Journal of Home Science, 3(1), 86–89.Google Scholar
  43. Pazouki, M., Jozi, S. A., & Ziari, Y. A. (2017). Strategic management in urban environment using SWOT and QSPM model. Global Journal of Environmental Science and Management, 3(2), 207–216.Google Scholar
  44. Poister, T. H. (2010). The future of strategic planning in the public sector: Linking strategic management and performance. Public Administration Review, 70(S1), 246–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Ravanavar, G. M., & Charantimath, P. M. (2012). Strategic formulation using tows matrix: A case study. International Journal of Research and Development, 1(1), 87–90.Google Scholar
  46. Rosmiza, M. Z., Davies, W. P., Jabil, M. J., & Mazdi, M. (2016). Prospects for increasing commercial mushroom production in Malaysia: Challenges and opportunities. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 7(1), 406–415.Google Scholar
  47. Rudra, K. (2017). Sharing water across Indo-Bangladesh Border. In S. Bandyopadhyay, A. Torre, P. Casaca, & T. Dentinho (Eds.), Regional cooperation in South Asia. Contemporary South Asian Studies (pp. 189–207). Cham: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Sarkar, S., Patra, S., & Samanta, A. (2015). Dipteran enemies of cultivated mushroom. Rashtriya Krishi, 10(2), 17–18.Google Scholar
  49. Sharma, V. P., Annepu, S. K., Gautam, Y., Singh, M., & Kamal, S. (2017). Status of mushroom production in India. Mushroom Research, 26(2), 111–120.Google Scholar
  50. Shirur, M., Gowda, N. S., & Chandregowda, M. J. (2017). An exemplary story of growing temperate mushroom in tropical climate of rural India: Lessons for other startups. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, 6(9), 2423–2433.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Singh, M. (2011). Mushroom production: An agribusiness activity. In M. Singh, B. Vijay, S. Kamal, G. C. Wakchaure (Eds.), Mushrooms-cultivation, marketing and consumption. Chambaghat, Solan: Directorate of Mushroom Research.Google Scholar
  52. Singh, G., & Singh, G. (2017). Constraints in adoption of recommended button mushroom cultivation techniques. Agriculture Update, 12(3), 351–356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Singh, M., & Kamal, S. (2012). Agriculture today. In M. J. Khan (Ed.), Mushroom scenario in India (pp. 83–87). New Delhi: Rohit House.Google Scholar
  54. Singh, N., Mehta, S., Godara, A. K., & Yadav, V. P. (2008). Constraints in mushroom production technology in Haryana. Agricultural Science Digest, 28(2), 118–120.Google Scholar
  55. Wani, B. A., Bodha, R. H., & Wani, A. H. (2010). Nutritional and medicinal importance of mushrooms. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 4(24), 2598–2604.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Ward, J. L. (1988). The special role of strategic planning for family businesses. Family Business Review, 1(2), 105–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Weihrich, H. (1982). The TOWS matrix: A tool for situational analysis. Long Range Planning, 15(2), 54–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Zhang, Y., Geng, W., Shen, Y., Wang, Y., & Dai, Y. C. (2014). Edible mushroom cultivation for food security and rural development in China: Bio-innovation, technological dissemination and marketing. Sustainability, 6(5), 2961–2973.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Geography, Aryabhatta School of Earth SciencesAssam University, Diphu CampusDiphuIndia
  2. 2.Department of Geography, School of Human and Environmental SciencesNorth-Eastern Hill UniversityShillongIndia
  3. 3.Department of Humanities and Social SciencesIndian Institute of Technology KharagpurKharagpurIndia

Personalised recommendations