Advertisement

GeoJournal

pp 1–14 | Cite as

Mapping crimes against women: spatio-temporal analysis of braid chopping incidents in Kashmir Valley, India

  • Muzafar Ahmad Wani
  • Shamim Ahmad Shah
  • Safiya Skinder
  • Sajad Nabi DarEmail author
  • Khursheed Ahmad Rather
  • Suhail Ahmad Wani
  • Tanweer Ahmad Malik
Article

Abstract

Crime and fear of crime are significant aspects of daily life and the occurrence of crime shows strong spatio-temporal variations. The valley of Kashmir is facing political instability, while violation of human rights has become a daily routine. However, women face more atrocities than men. Braid chopping is a new phenomenon of violence against women. The incidents of braid chopping started suddenly on 5 September 2017 and ended on 22 October 2017. In the present study, we have analysed spatio-temporal pattern of braid chopping incidents in order to understand whether the reported cases are randomly distributed across the valley or if there are geographical clusters of these incidents. Kernel density was worked out to make hotspots of the crime apparent on the map. We have identified two major hotspots of braid chopping, one in south Kashmir i.e. district Kulgam and the other in south western parts of Srinagar. This is a pioneering research attempt to represent a case study of braid chopping and also the first research article to carry out such type of work in GIS environment. The GIS maps generated in this study can helps authorities to carry out investigation in the identified areas instead of spreading resource to the entire valley.

Keywords

Crime Braid chopping GIS Hotspot Cluster 

Notes

References

  1. Ahmad, S. (2017). First mysterious hair cutting incident in Kashmir. Kashmir observer. https://kashmirobserver.net/breaking-news/22640. Accessed 16 January, 2018.
  2. Ainsworth, P. B. (2001). Offender profiling and crime analysis. Devon: William Publishing.Google Scholar
  3. Akhtar, C. (2013). Eve teasing as a form of violence against women: A case study of District Srinagar, Kashmir. International Journal of Sociology and Anthropology, 5(5), 168–178.  https://doi.org/10.5897/IJSA2013.0445.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. American Medical Association/Council on Scientific Affairs. (1992). Violence against women: Relevance for medical practitioners. Journal of the American Medical Association, 267, 3184–3189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Amin, R., et al. (2015). Geographical clusters of rape in the United States: 2000–2012. Statistics and Public policy, 2(1), 1–6.  https://doi.org/10.1080/2330443X.2015.1092899.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Anselin, L., et al. (2000). Spatial analyses of crime. Criminal Justice, 4, 21–23.Google Scholar
  7. Australian Bureau of Statistics’ (ABS). (2016). Personal safety survey. http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/mf/4906.0. Accessed 18 January, 2018.
  8. Bell, N., & Schuurman, N. (2010). GIS and injury prevention and control: History, challenges, and opportunities. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 7, 1002–1017.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bilal, S., & Gul, A. (2015). Women and violence: A study of women’s empowerment and its challenges in Jammu and Kashmir. Reviews of Literature, 2(7), 1–9.Google Scholar
  10. Canter, D., & Larkin, P. (1993). The environmental range of serial rapists. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 13, 63–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Carrillo, R. (1992). Battered dreams: Violence against women as an obstacle to development. New York: United Nations Fund for Women.Google Scholar
  12. Census. (2011). Population of Jammu and Kashmir, India. http://www.ccensusofindia.com//index.html. Accessed 17 January, 2018.
  13. Chakravarty, I., & Naqash, R. (2016). What makes South Kashmir fertile ground for militancy? Scroll.in. https://scroll.in/article/811419/what-makes-south-kashmir-fertile-ground-for-militancy. Accessed 17 January, 2018.
  14. Dabla, B. A. (2009). Violence against women in Kashmir. Retrieved from http://www.kashmirlife.net/violence-against-women-in-kashmir-369/. Accessed 18 January, 2018.
  15. Dey, A. (2017). A mysterious “braid-chopper” is cutting off women’s hair in northern India. quartz India. https://qz.com/1046374/a-mysterious-braid-chopper-is-cutting-off-womens-hair-in-northern-india/. Accessed 16 January, 2018.
  16. Diaz, A. A. (1988). Amniocentesis and Female Foeticide. Bulletin of the Indian Federation of Medical Guild, 56, 41–47Google Scholar
  17. Eck, J., Chainey, S., Cameron, J., Leitner, M., & Wilson, R. (2005). Mapping crime: Understanding hot spots. Washington: National Institute of Justice.Google Scholar
  18. Fayaz, K. (2017). Braid chopping: Mass hysteria or planned conspiracy? WANDE Magazine. http://www.wandemag.com/braid-chopping-hysteria-conspiracy/.
  19. Fyfe, N. (2000). Geography of crime. In R. Johnston, D. Gregory, G. Pratt, & M. Watts (Eds.), Dictionary of human geography (4th ed., pp. 120–123). Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  20. Hakeem, I. (2017). Braid chopping incidents taking political turn in Kashmir, the Economic times. https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/politics-and-nation/braid-chopping-incidents-taking-political-turn-in-kashmir/articleshow/60950819.cms. Accessed 18 January, 2018.
  21. Hart, T. C., & Zandbergen, P. A. (2014). Kernel density estimation and hotspot mapping: Examining the influence of interpolation method, grid cell size, and bandwidth on crime forecasting. Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies and Management, 37(2), 305–323.  https://doi.org/10.1108/pijpsm-04-2013-0039.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Heise, L. (1994). Gender-based abuse: The global epidemic. Cad. Saúde Públ., 10(supplement 1), 135–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Heise, L., Pitanguy, A., & Germaine, A. (1994). Violence against women: The hidden health burden. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank.Google Scholar
  24. Hester, M. (2004). Violence against women. Sage Publications, 10(12), 1431–1448.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1077801204270559.Google Scholar
  25. Himabindu, B. L., Arora, R., & Prashanth, N. S. (2014). Whose problem is it anyway? Crimes against women in India. Global Health Action, 7(1), 23718.  https://doi.org/10.3402/gha.v7.23718.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. India Today. (2017). Mystery of braid chopping: How mass hysteria travelled from Rajasthan to Kashmir. https://www.indiatoday.in/india/story/braid-chopping-mystery-mass-hysteria-rajasthan-kashmir-H1067908-2017-10-20. Accessed 17 January, 2018.
  27. Jeyaseelan, L., et al. (2007). Physical spousal violence against women in India: Some risk factors. Journal of Biosocial Science, 39(5), 657–670.  https://doi.org/10.1017/s0021932007001836.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kazi, S. (2014). Rape, impunity and justice in Kashmir. Socio-Legal Review, 10(2014), 14–46.Google Scholar
  29. Khan, K. S. (2015). Discerning women’s discursive frames in CyberKashmir. Contemporary South Asia, 23(3), 334–351.  https://doi.org/10.1080/09584935.2015.1040737.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kocsis, R. N., & Irwin, H. J. (1997). An analysis of spatial patterns in serial rape, arson, and burglary: The utility of the circle theory of environmental range for psychological profiling. Psychiatry, Psychology and Law, 4(2), 195–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Livemint. (2017). Over 100 militants active in South Kashmir: Army official. http://www.livemint.com/Politics/6xUJOxI49FkPXwwBVGaWGL/Over-100-militants-active-in-south-Kashmir-Army-official.html. Accessed 18 January, 2018.
  32. Livingston, M. (2008). Alcohol outlet density and assault: A spatial analysis. Addiction, 103(6), 19–28.Google Scholar
  33. Mukherjee, C., et al. (2001). Crimes against women in India: Analysis of official statistics. Economic and Political Weekly, 36(43), 407–408.Google Scholar
  34. Mukherjee, D. (2017). Rajasthan’s scissorhands? Panic in villages after ‘ghost’ chops off women’s hair. http://www.hindustantimes.com/india-news/rajasthan-s-scissorhands-panic-in-villages-after-ghost-chops-off-women-s-hair/story-bQ0ZHij1WVQGOeHTPzybaI.html. Accessed 18 January, 2018.
  35. Naik. (2015). Feminine oppression: A study of the conflict in Kashmir. The International Journal of Indian Psychology, 2(4), 2349–3429. http://www.ijip.in.
  36. National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB). (2015). Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India. http://ncrb.nic.in. Accessed 17 January, 2018.
  37. Pawson, E., & Banks, G. (1993). Rape and fear in a New Zealand City. Area, 25(2), 55–63.Google Scholar
  38. Pillai, S. (2001). Domestic violence in New Zealand: An Asian immigrant perspective. Economic and Political Weekly, 36(11), 965–974.Google Scholar
  39. Rabbani, A. (2011). Jammu & Kashmir and the armed forces special powers act. South Asian Survey, 18(2), 259–277.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0971523113513377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Rastogi, M., & Therly, P. (2006). Dowry and its link to violence against women in India: Feminist psychological perspectives. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 7(1), 66–77.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1524838005283927.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Ray, A. (2009). Kashmiri women and the politics of identity. Paper presented to SHUR Final Conference on Human Rights and Civil Society, Rome.Google Scholar
  42. Shafi, A. (2002). Working women in Kashmir: Problems and prospects. New Delhi: APH Publishers.Google Scholar
  43. Sherman, L. W., Gottfredson, D., MacKenzie, D., Eck, J., Reuter, P., & Bushway, S. (1998). Preventing crime: What works, what doesn’t, what’s promising. Washington, DC: National Institute of Justice.Google Scholar
  44. Suhail, S. (2017). Fresh case of mysterious ‘braid-chopping’ surfaces in Kokernag, Early Times. http://www.earlytimes.in/newsdet.aspx?q=211868. Accessed 18 January, 2018.
  45. Tamim, B. (2017). Braid-chopping sparks fear and unrest in Kashmir. http://www.aljazeera.com/news/2017/10/sparks-fear-unrest-kashmir-171012095359240.html. Accessed 18 January, 2018.
  46. Tandon, S. L., & Sharma, R. (2006). Female foeticide and infanticide in India: An analysis of crimes against girl children. International Journal of Criminal Justice Sciences, 1(1), 1–10.Google Scholar
  47. Thapar, K. (2017). What is one to make of the braid chopping panic in Kashmir? Hindustan Times, Oct 14, 2017 16:24 IST. http://www.hindustantimes.com/columns/what-is-one-to-make-of-the-braid-chopping-panic-in-kashmir/story-rX4Wpc3UZc9EWgkuBj18eJ.html.
  48. The United Nations. (1993). Declaration on the elimination of violence against women. San Francisco: General Assembly Resolution.Google Scholar
  49. Thornton, W. E., & Voigt, L. (2007). Disaster rape: Vulnerability of women to sexual assaults during Hurricane Katrina. Journal of Public Management and Social Policy, 13(2), 23–49.Google Scholar
  50. Times of India. (1988). January 10. In Willigen, J. V. and Channa, V. C. (1991). Law, custom, and crimes against women: The problem of dowry death in India. Human Organization, 50(4). 0018-7259/91/040369-09.Google Scholar
  51. UNDPI (United Nations Department of Public Information). (2008). News and Media Division. (SG/SM/11437 WOM/1665). New York.Google Scholar
  52. UNFPA. (2010). Gender equality: Calling for an end to female genital mutilation/cutting. Accessed from http://www.unfpa.org/gender/practices1.htm. Accessed 16 January, 2018.
  53. Verma, U. (1990). Crime against women. In S. Sood (Ed.), Violence against women. Jaipur: Arihant Publishers.Google Scholar
  54. Vetten, L. (1998). The rape surveillance project. Agenda Empowering Women for Gender Equity, 13(36), 45–49.Google Scholar
  55. Walker, B. B., Schuurman, N., & Hameed, S. M. (2014). A GIS-based spatiotemporal analysis of violent trauma hotspots in Vancouver, Canada: identification, contextualisation and intervention. British Medical Journal Open, 4(2), e003642.  https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2013-003642.Google Scholar
  56. Warren, J. M., Ekelund, U., Besson, H., Mezzani, A., Geladas, N., & Vanhees, L. (2010). Crime scene and distance correlates of serial rape. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 14, 35–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Weisburd, D., & Braga, A. (2006). Police innovation: Contrasting perspectives. Cambridge studies in criminolog. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. WHO (World Health Organization). (2013). Global and regional estimates of violence against women: Prevalence and health effects of intimate partner violence and non-partner sexual violence.Google Scholar
  59. World Bank. (1993). World Development Report 1993: Investing in health. New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Wortley, R., & Mazerolle, L. (2008). Environmental criminology and crime analysis. Milton: Willan Publishing.Google Scholar
  61. Yasir, S. (2017). What is driving south Kashmir’s youth to militancy? Firstpost. http://www.firstpost.com/india/what-is-driving-south-kashmirs-youth-to-militancy-2376980.html. Accessed 18 January, 2018.

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Muzafar Ahmad Wani
    • 1
  • Shamim Ahmad Shah
    • 2
  • Safiya Skinder
    • 2
  • Sajad Nabi Dar
    • 2
    Email author
  • Khursheed Ahmad Rather
    • 1
  • Suhail Ahmad Wani
    • 1
  • Tanweer Ahmad Malik
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of GeographyGovernment Degree College PulwamaPulwamaIndia
  2. 2.Department of Geography and Regional DevelopmentUniversity of KashmirSrinagarIndia

Personalised recommendations