, Volume 84, Issue 6, pp 1531–1548 | Cite as

Land cover change and forest management strategies in Ife nature reserve, Nigeria

  • Adebayo Oluwole EludoyinEmail author
  • Olamide Olaleye Iyanda


This study examined the existing forest management strategies and land cover change in one of nature forest reserves in Nigeria. It analysed freely available Landsat imageries for the assessment of land cover change between 1986 and 2014, and conducted key informant interviews on forest guards and an administrator in relevant ministry, for information on management practiced. Results showed that about 35.2% of the vegetal cover were lost within the study period; 80% of the interviewed forest guards attributed such loss to unrestricted access of the surrounding communities, 60% to logging or chain saw operation, and 40% to farming practices and bush burning in the reserve. Management practiced is that, which ensures passive input with active harvesting, but cannot be fixed within a specific sustainable strategy of the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations. The study concluded that given the management strategy practiced in the forest reserve, which also allows defaulters of forest reserve regulations to escape punishment because they can ‘settle’, indicates that corruption, rather than poverty, is the major drive of deforestation in the area.


Deforestation Forest management strategy Land cover change Nature forest reserve 


  1. Adekunle, V. A. J. (2006). Conservation of tree species diversity in tropical rainforest ecosystem of South-West Nigeria. Journal of Tropical Forest Science,18(2), 91–101.Google Scholar
  2. Ademola, A. (2006). The poor and the poorest in Nigerian society: a paradox. In E.O. Akinnawo et al. (Eds.), Socio-economic policies and millennium development in Africa. Proceedings of the 1st international conference on socio-economic policies and millennium development goals in Africa (pp. 418–427).Google Scholar
  3. Ajala, O. A., & Olayiwola, A. M. (2013). An assessment of the growth of Ile-Ife, Osun state Nigeria, using multi-temporal imageries. Journal of Geography and Geology,5(2), 43–54.Google Scholar
  4. Anderson, J. R. (1976). A land use and land cover classification system for use with remote sensor data (Vol. 964(964)). Washington: US Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  5. Aweto, A. O. (1990). Plantation forestry and forest conservation in Nigeria. The Environmentalist,10(2), 127–134.Google Scholar
  6. Bawa, K. S., & Seidler, R. (1998). Natural forest management and conservation of biodiversity in tropical forests. Conservation Biology,12(1), 46–55.Google Scholar
  7. Boynton, P. M., & Greenhalgh, T. (2004). Hands-on guide to questionnaire research: Selecting, designing, and developing your questionnaire. BMJ. British Medical Journal,328(7451), 1372–1375.Google Scholar
  8. Chazdon, R. L., Brancalion, P. H., Laestadius, L., Bennett-Curry, A., Buckingham, K., Kumar, C., et al. (2016). When is a forest a forest? Forest concepts and definitions in the era of forest and landscape restoration. Ambio,45(5), 538–550.Google Scholar
  9. Chomitz, K. M. (2000). Evaluating carbon offsets from forestry and energy projects: How do they compare? (Vol. 2357). Washington: World Bank Publications.Google Scholar
  10. Cohen, W. B., & Goward, S. N. (2004). Landsat’s role in ecological applications of remote sensing. BioScience,54(6), 535–545.Google Scholar
  11. Congalton, R. G. (1991). A review of assessing the accuracy of classifications of remotely sensed data. Remote Sensing of Environment,37(1), 35–46.Google Scholar
  12. D’Silva, E., & Appanah, S. (1993). Forestry management for sustainable development. ED1 Policy Seminar Report,32, 251–262.Google Scholar
  13. Dada, F. O. A., Jibrin, G. M., & Ijeoma, A. (2006). Macmillan Nigeria secondary atlas (p. 136). Lagos: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  14. Dare, P. M., & Fraser, C. S. (2001). Cover: Mapping informal settlements using high resolution satellite imagery. International Journal of Remote Sensing,22(8), 1399–1401.Google Scholar
  15. DeFries, R. S., Rudel, T., Uriarte, M., & Hansen, M. (2010). Deforestation driven by urban population growth and agricultural trade in the twenty-first century. Nature Geoscience,3(3), 178–181.Google Scholar
  16. Deininger, K. W., & Minten, B. (1999). Poverty, policies, and deforestation: The case of Mexico. Economic Development and Cultural Change,47(2), 313–344.Google Scholar
  17. Eastman, J. R. (2003). IDRISI Kilimanjaro: guide to GIS and image processing., Idrisi production Worcester: Clark University.Google Scholar
  18. Federal Ministry of Environment. (2006). National Forest Policy. Accessed from 07 January 2018.
  19. Foley, J. A., DeFries, R., Asner, G. P., Barford, C., Bonan, G., & Carpenter, S. R. (2005). Global consequences of land use. Science, 309(5734), 570–574.Google Scholar
  20. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). (2007). State of the world’s forests. Rome: Food & Agriculture Organisation.Google Scholar
  21. Geist, H. J., & Lambin, E. F. (2002). Proximate causes and underlying driving forces of tropical deforestation: Tropical forests are disappearing as the result of many pressures, both local and regional, acting in various combinations in different geographical locations. BioScience,52(2), 143–150.Google Scholar
  22. Hosonuma, N., Herold, M., De Sy, V., De Fries, R. S., Brockhaus, M., Verchot, L., et al. (2012). An assessment of deforestation and forest degradation drivers in developing countries. Environmental Research Letters,7(4), 044009.Google Scholar
  23. Ikhuoria, I. A., Ero, I. I., & Ikhuoria, A. E. (2006). Satellite detection and GIS analysis of lowland rainforest reserve reduction in Edo State, Nigeria. In Imperatives of space technology for sustainable forest management. proceedings of an international stakeholders’ workshop sponsored by national space research and development agency (NARSDA), Abuja.Google Scholar
  24. International Union of Forest Research Organizations (IUFRO). (2007). SilvaTerm data base. Accessed online at URL: on Sept. 15, 2016.
  25. Isichei, A. O. (1995). Omo Biosphere Reserve, Current Status, Utilization of Biological Resources and Sustainable Management (Nigeria). In Working papers of the south-south cooperation programme on environmentally sound socio-economic development in the humid tropics. UNESCO, Paris. Google Scholar
  26. Kaimowitz, D. (2003). Not by bread alone… forests and rural livelihoods in sub-Saharan Africa. In Forests in poverty reduction strategies: Capturing the potential. EFI proceedings (Vol. 47, pp. 45–63).Google Scholar
  27. Kaimowitz, D., & Angelsen, A. (1998). Economic models of tropical deforestation: A review. Bogor: Centre for International Forest Research.Google Scholar
  28. Katila, P., de Jong, W., Galloway, G., Pokorny, B., & Pacheco, P. (2017). Building on synergies: Harnessing community and smallholder forestry for Sustainable Development Goals. Vienna: IUFRO.Google Scholar
  29. Kithsir, P. L., & Tateishi, R. (1995). Do remote sensing and GIS have a practical applicability in developing countries (including some Sri Lankan experiences)? Remote Sensing,16(1), 35–51.Google Scholar
  30. Lambin, E. F., Turner, B. L., Geist, H. J., Agbola, S. B., Angelsen, A., Bruce, J. W., et al. (2001). The causes of land-use and land-cover change: Moving beyond the myths. Global Environmental Change,11(4), 261–269.Google Scholar
  31. Lu, D., & Weng, Q. (2007). A survey of image classification methods and techniques for improving classification performance. International Journal of Remote Sensing,28(5), 823–870.Google Scholar
  32. Mather, A. S. (1991). Pressures on British forest policy: Prologue to the post-industrial forest? Area,23(3), 245–253.Google Scholar
  33. Mayaux, P., Pekel, J. F., Desclée, B., Donnay, F., Lupi, A., Achard, F., et al. (2013). State and evolution of the African rainforests between 1990 and 2010. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B,368(1625), 20120300.Google Scholar
  34. Meaden, G. J., & Kapetsky, J. M. (1991). Geographical information systems and remote sensing in inland fisheries and aquaculture. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.Google Scholar
  35. Montgomery, M. R. (2008). The urban transformation of the developing world. Science,319(5864), 761–764.Google Scholar
  36. Myers, N. (1988). Threatened biotas:” Hot spots” in tropical forests. Environmentalist,8(3), 187–208.Google Scholar
  37. Myers, S. (1991). Structure preservation and the strong domain hypothesis. Linguistic Inquiry,22(2), 379–385.Google Scholar
  38. National Research Council (US). (2001). Committee on grand challenges in environmental sciences., Grand challenges in environmental sciences Washington: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
  39. Nigerian Environmental Study. Action Team, & International Development Research Centre (Canada). (1991). Nigeria’s threatened environment: A national profile. Ibadan: NEST, Nigerian Environmental Study Action Team.Google Scholar
  40. Nuga, B. O., & Akinbola, G. E. (2011). Characteristics and classification of soils developed over coastal plain sand and shale parent material in Abia State Nigeria. Journal of Technology and Education in Nigeria,16(1), 104–107.Google Scholar
  41. Oke, S. O., & Oyedare, P. F. (2006). Effects of sawmilling activities on vegetation characteristics in Isokan area of Southwestern Nigeria. International Journal of Botany,2(2), 163–170. Scholar
  42. Okorodudu-Fubara, M. T. (1998). Law of environmental protection: Materials and text (938 p). Nigeria: Caltop Publication.Google Scholar
  43. Olawuni, P. O., & Okunola, O. H. (2014). Socioeconomic impacts of sawmill industry on residents. A case study of Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Journal of Economics,2(3), 167–176.Google Scholar
  44. Oloukoi, J., Oyinloye, R. O., & Yadjemi, H. (2014). Geospatial analysis of urban sprawl in Ile-Ife city, Nigeria. South African Journal of Geomatics,3(2), 128–144.Google Scholar
  45. Olufemi A. O. & Ameh, C. E. (1999). Data collection and analysis for sustainable forest management in ACP countries—linking national and international efforts: forest resource situation assessment of Nigeria, FAO. Geneva, p. 44, Downloaded at Accessed on 04 January 2018.
  46. Omodanisi, E. S., Eludoyin, A. O., & Salami, A. T. (2014). A multi-perspective view of the effects of a pipeline explosion in Nigeria. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 7, 68–77.Google Scholar
  47. Orimoogunje, O. O. I. (2014). The impact of land use dynamics on Oluwa Forest Reserve in Southwestern, Nigeria. Journal of Landscape Ecology,7(2), 25–44.Google Scholar
  48. Oriola, E. O. (2009). Forestry for sustainable development in Nigeria. International Journal of African Studies,1(1), 11–16.Google Scholar
  49. Oyinloye, M. A., & Kufoniyi, O. (2013). Application of IKONOS satellite images in monitoring of urban landuse change in Ikeja, GRA, Lagos, Nigeria. International Journal of Engineering Science Invention,2(5), 1–10.Google Scholar
  50. Plumptre, A. J. (1996). Changes following 60 years of selective timber harvesting in the Budongo Forest Reserve, Uganda. Forest Ecology and Management,89(1–3), 101–113.Google Scholar
  51. Putz, F. E. (1994). Towards a sustainable forest. How can forests be man-aged in a way that satisfies criteria of sustainability? International Tropical Timber Organization Tropical Forestry Update,4, 7–9.Google Scholar
  52. Putz, F. E., Blate, G. M., Redford, K. H., Fimbel, R., & Robinson, J. (2001). Tropical forest management and conservation of biodiversity: An overview. Conservation Biology,15(1), 7–20.Google Scholar
  53. Repetto, R., & Gillis, M. (Eds.). (1988). Public policies and the misuse of forest resources. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, World Resources Institute.Google Scholar
  54. Rilwani, M. L., & Ikhuoria, I. A. (2006). Precision farming with geoinformatics: A new paradigm for agricultural production in a developing country. Transactions in GIS,10(2), 177–197.Google Scholar
  55. Rowe, J. S. (1992). The ecosystem approach to forestland management. The Forestry Chronicle,68(2), 222–224.Google Scholar
  56. Rudel, T. K. (2013). The national determinants of deforestation in sub-Saharan Africa. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B,368(1625), 20120405.Google Scholar
  57. Salami, A. T. (1999). Vegetation dynamics on the fringes of lowland tropical rainforest of Southwestern Nigeria—An assessment of environmental change with Air Photos and Landsat TM. International Journal of Remote Sensing,20(6), 1169–1182.Google Scholar
  58. Salami, A. T. (Ed.). (2006). Imperatives of space technology for sustainable forest management in Nigeria. Ile-Ife: Space Applications & Environmental Science Laboratory, Obafemi Awolowo University.Google Scholar
  59. Salami, A. T., Ekaanade, O., & Oyinloye, R. O. (1999). Detection of forest reserve incursion in south-western Nigeria from a combination of multi-date aerial photographs and high-resolution satellite imagery. International Journal of Remote Sensing,20(8), 1487–1497.Google Scholar
  60. Sunderlin, W. D., Angelsen, A., Belcher, B., Burgers, P., Nasi, R., Santoso, L., et al. (2005). Livelihoods, forests, and conservation in developing countries: An overview. World Development,33(9), 1383–1402.Google Scholar
  61. Turner, B. L., Kasperson, R. E., Matson, P. A., McCarthy, J. J., Corell, R. W., Christensen, L., et al. (2003). A framework for vulnerability analysis in sustainability science. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences,100(14), 8074–8079.Google Scholar
  62. Wheeler, T., & Von Braun, J. (2013). Climate change impacts on global food security. Science,341(6145), 508–513.Google Scholar
  63. Wilkie, D. S. (1994). Remote sensing imagery for resource inventories in central Africa: The importance of detailed field data. Human Ecology,22(3), 379–403.Google Scholar
  64. Wilkie, D., Shaw, E., Rotberg, F., Morelli, G., & Auzel, P. (2000). Roads, development, and conservation in the Congo Basin. Conservation Biology,14(6), 1614–1622.Google Scholar
  65. Wright, S. J., & Muller-Landau, H. C. (2006). The future of tropical forest species. Biotropica,38(3), 287–301.Google Scholar
  66. Wright, S. J., Stoner, K. E., Beckman, N., Corlett, R. T., Dirzo, R., Muller-Landau, H. C., et al. (2007). The plight of large animals in tropical forests and the consequences for plant regeneration. Biotropica,39(3), 289–291.Google Scholar
  67. Wulder, M. A., Masek, J. G., Cohen, W. B., Loveland, T. R., & Woodcock, C. E. (2012). Opening the archive: How free data has enabled the science and monitoring promise of Landsat. Remote Sensing of Environment,122, 2–10.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Adebayo Oluwole Eludoyin
    • 1
    Email author
  • Olamide Olaleye Iyanda
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of GeographyObafemi Awolowo UniversityIle-IfeNigeria
  2. 2.Institute of Ecology and Environmental StudiesObafemi Awolowo UniversityIle-IfeNigeria

Personalised recommendations