Coastal environmental injustice in Ghana: the activities of coastal sediment miners in the Elmina, Cape Coast and Moree area
Human impact has increased stunningly during the last century with coastal problems being one manifestation of environmental injustice with ecological, economic, and social dimensions on coastal resources. The study sought to assess the residents’ perception of coastline changes in the milieu of the rampant sand mining activities along the Elmina, Cape Coast and Moree coastline of Ghana. The study employed the purposive sampling technique: 100 respondents were engaged from the selected study areas through simple random sampling method. Interviews, Focus group discussions, observations and questionnaire were the main instruments used. The study revealed that beach sand mining is widespread across the Elmina-Cape Coast-Moree coastline and takes place in several forms, with the magnitude of sand taken from the beach being dependent on the transportation medium and the purpose to which sand is to be put. It is considered that the 1995 National Environmental Policy has become outdated and the sections dedicated to the coastal zone are irrelevant due to new research data and trends in administration. The time is right for a concerted national policy dedicated to only the coastal zone that takes into consideration the multiplicity of use of the zone and adopts an integrated management approach.
KeywordsErosion Environmental injustice Sand mining Degradation Ghana
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