Advertisement

GeoJournal

, Volume 76, Issue 5, pp 447–467 | Cite as

Using spatial statistics to identify and characterise ethnoburbs: establishing a methodology using the example of Auckland, New Zealand

  • Ron Johnston
  • Michael Poulsen
  • James Forrest
Article

Abstract

Recent studies in the United States and other Pacific Rim countries have identified a new form of ethnic minority group clustering within the residential mosaic—ethnoburbs. These are suburban in location, occupied by relatively high-income, predominantly Asian, immigrants, and low density in their nature: many migrants move directly to those suburbs rather than the inter-generational outward migration from central city clusters typical of other migrant streams. Although ethnoburb residents tend to cluster in particular segments of the built-up area they do not to form large percentages of the population there. As yet, no methodology has been developed to identify these clusters, as a prelude to identifying their characteristics. This paper offers such a procedure, based on local statistical analysis. It is applied to six Asian groups in Auckland, New Zealand.

Keywords

Ethnic segregation Ethnoburbs Asians Auckland 

References

  1. Bell, W. (1958). The utility of the Shevky typology for the design of urban sub-areas. Journal of Social Psychology, 47, 71–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Boal, F. W. (1999). From undivided cities to undivided cities: Assimilation to ethnic cleansing. Housing Studies, 14, 585–600.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Brown, L. A., & Chung, S.-Y. (2006). Spatial segregation, segregation indices and the geographical perspective. Population, Space and Place, 12, 125–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Dunn, K. M., & Roberts, S. (2006). The social construction of an Indochinese Australian neighborhood in Sydney: The case of Cabramatta. In W. Li (Ed.), From urban enclave to ethnic suburb: New Asian communities in Pacific Rim countries (pp. 184–202). Honolulu: University of Hawai’i’ Press.Google Scholar
  5. Dunn, R. (1998). Rethinking ethnic concentration: The case of Cabramatta, Sydney. Urban Studies, 35, 503–527.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Forrest, J., Poulsen, M. F., & Johnston, R. J. (2009). Temporary and disadvantaged? The economic and spatial assimilation of New Zealand Maori in Sydney. Population, Space and Place, 15, 475–492.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Friesen, W., Murphy, L., & Kearns, R. (2005). Spiced-up Sandringham: Indian transnationalism and new suburban spaces in Auckland, New Zealand. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 31, 385–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Getis, A., & Ord, J. K. (1992). The analysis of spatial association by use of distance statistics. Geographical Analysis, 24, 189–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Hage, G. (1998). White nation: Fantasies of white supremacy in a multicultural society. Annandale, NSW: Pluto Press.Google Scholar
  10. Hiebert, D. (2005). Immigration and the transformation of Canadian cities: Exploring contemporary forms of globalization using the example of Koreans in Vancouver. Korean Review of Canadian Studies, 11, 1–18.Google Scholar
  11. Hiebert, D., & Ley, D. F. (2003). Assimilation, cultural pluralism, and social exclusion among ethnocultural groups in Vancouver. Urban Geography, 24, 16–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Ho, E., & Bedford, R. D. (2006). The Chinese in Auckland: Changing profiles in a more diverse society. In W. Li (Ed.), From urban enclave to ethnic suburb: New Asian communities in Pacific Rim countries (pp. 203–230). Honolulu: University of Hawai’i’ Press.Google Scholar
  13. Johnston, R. J., & Pattie, C. J. (2010). Social networks, geography and neighbourhood effects. In J. Scott & P. Carrington (Eds.), The SAGE handbook of social network analysis. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  14. Johnston, R. J., Poulsen, M. F., & Forrest, J. (2006a). Blacks and Hispanics in urban America: Similar patterns of residential segregation? Population, Space and Place, 12, 389–406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Johnston, R. J., Poulsen, M. F., & Forrest, J. (2007). The geography of ethnic residential segregation: A comparative study of five countries. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 97, 713–738.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Johnston, R. J., Poulsen, M. F., & Forrest, J. (2008a). Asians, Pacific Islanders and ethnoburbs in Auckland, New Zealand. Geographical Review, 98, 214–241.Google Scholar
  17. Johnston, R. J., Poulsen, M. F., & Forrest, J. (2008b). Back to basics: A reply to Watts. Environment and Planning A, 40, 2037–2041.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Johnston, R. J., Poulsen, M. F., & Forrest, J. (2009). Measuring ethnic residential segregation: Putting some more geography in. Urban Geography, 30, 91–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Johnston, R. J., Poulsen, M. F., & Forrest, J. (2010a). Evaluating changing residential segregation in Auckland, New Zealand, using spatial statistics. Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie, 101.Google Scholar
  20. Johnston, R. J., Poulsen, M. F., & Forrest, J. (2010b). Moving on from indices, refocusing on mix: On measuring and understanding ethnic patterns of residential segregation. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 36, 697–706.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Johnston, R. J., Trlin, A. D., Henderson, A., & North, N. (2006b). Sustaining and creating migration chains among skilled immigrant groups: Chinese, Indians and South Africans in New Zealand. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 32, 1227–1250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kaplan, D. H., & Holloway, S. R. (2001). Scaling ethnic segregation: Causal processes and contingent outcomes in Chinese residential patterns. GeoJournal, 53, 59–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kim, D.-C., & Yoon, H.-K. (2003). Reality in paradise: A pilot study of Korean immigrants in New Zealand using the 1996 census. In Y. Ishikawa & A. Montanari (Eds.), The new geography of human mobility inequality trends (pp. 85–102). Rome: Società Geografica Italiana.Google Scholar
  24. Ley, D. F. (2008). The immigrant church as an urban service hub. Urban Studies, 45, 2057–2074.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ley, D. F., & Murphy, P. (2001). Immigration in gateway cities: Sydney and Vancouver in comparative perspective. Progress in Planning, 55, 119–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Li, W. (1998). Anatomy of a new ethnic settlement: The Chinese Ethnoburb in Los Angeles. Urban Studies, 35, 479–501.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Li, W. (Ed.). (2006a). From urban enclave to ethnic suburb: New Asian communities in Pacific Rim countries. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i’ Press.Google Scholar
  28. Li, W. (2006b). Asian immigration and community in the Pacific Rim. In W. Li (Ed.), From urban enclave to ethnic suburb: New Asian communities in Pacific Rim countries (pp. 1–18). Honolulu: University of Hawai’i’ Press.Google Scholar
  29. Logan, J. R., & Zhang, W. (2004). Identifying ethnic neighbourhoods with census data: Group concentration and spatial clustering. In M. F. Goodchild & D. G. Janelle (Eds.), Spatially integrated social science (pp. 113–126). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  30. Logan, J. R., Zhang, W., & Alba, R. D. (2002). Immigrant enclaves and ethnic communities in New York and Los Angeles. American Sociological Review, 67, 279–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Logan, J. R., Zhang, W., & Xu, H. (2010). Applied spatial thinking in social science research. GeoJournal, 75, 15–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Massey, D. S., & Denton, N. S. (1988). The dimensions of residential segregation. Social Forces, 67, 281–315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Miller, V. (2003). Mobile Chinatowns: The future of community in a space of flows. Electronic Journal of Social Issues, 2. Available at http://www.whb.co.uk/socialissues/vol2vm.htm.
  34. Ord, J. K., & Getis, A. (1995). Local spatial autocorrelation statistics: Distributional issues and an application. Geographical Analysis, 27, 286–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Ord, J. K., & Getis, A. (2001). Testing for local spatial autocorrelation in the presence of global autocorrelation. Journal of Regional Science, 41, 411–432.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Peach, C. (2009). Slippery segregation: Discovering or manufacturing ghettos? Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 35, 1381–1395.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Portes, A., & Zhou, M. (1993). The new second generation: Segmented assimilation and its variants among post-1965 immigrant youth. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 530, 74–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Poulsen, M. F., Johnston, R. J., & Forrest, J. (2010). The intensity of ethnic residential clustering: Exploring scale effects using local indicators of spatial association. Environment and Planning A, 42, 874–894.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Reardon, S. F. (2006). A conceptual framework for measuring segregation and its association with population outcomes. In J. M. Oakes & J. S. Kaufman (Eds.), Methods in social epidemiology (pp. 169–192). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  40. Reardon, S. F., Farrell, C. R., Matthews, S. A., O’Sullivan, D., Bischoff, K., & Firebaugh, G. (2009). Race and space in the 1990s: Changes in the geographic scale of racial residential segregation, 1990–2000. Social Science Research, 38, 55–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Reardon, S. F., Matthews, S. A., O’Sullivan, D., Lee, B. A., Firebaugh, G., & Farrell, C. R. (2008). The geographic scale of metropolitan racial segregation. Demography, 45, 489–514.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Simpson, L., & Peach, C. (2009). Measurement and analysis of segregation, integration and diversity: Editorial introduction. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 35, 1377–1380.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Stillwell, J. C. H. (2010). Internal migration propensities and pattern’s of London’s ethnic groups. In J. C. H. Stillwell, O. W. Duke-Williams, & A. Dennett (Eds.), Technologies for migration and commuting analysis: Spatial interaction data applications. Hershey, PA: IGI Global.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Vo, L. T., & Danico, M. Y. (2004). The formation of post-suburban communities: Koreatown and Little Saigon, Orange County. International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, 24, 15–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Watts, M. J. (2008). Ethnic residential segregation: Some comments on a commentary. Environment and Planning A, 40, 2031–2036.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Wood, J. S. (2006). Making America at Eden Centre. In W. Li (Ed.), From urban enclave to ethnic suburb: New Asian communities in Pacific Rim countries (pp. 23–40). Honolulu: University of Hawai’i’ Press.Google Scholar
  47. Zelinsky, W., & Lee, B. A. (1998). Heterolocalism: An alternative model of the sociospatial behaviour of immigrant ethnic communities. International Journal of Population Geography, 4, 281–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Zhou, M. (1997). Segmented assimilation: Issues, controversies, and recent research on the new second generation. International Migration Review, 31, 975–1008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Zhou, M., Tseng, Y.-F., & Kim, R. Y. (2008). Rethinking residential assimilation: The case of a Chinese ethnoburb in the San Gabriel Valley, California. Amerasia Journal, 34, 55–83.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of BristolBristolUK
  2. 2.Macquarie UniversitySydneyAustralia

Personalised recommendations