GeoJournal

, Volume 76, Issue 4, pp 303–322 | Cite as

Amenity migration: diverse conceptualizations of drivers, socioeconomic dimensions, and emerging challenges

Article

Abstract

Rural communities throughout the postindustrial world are in the midst of a significant transition, sometimes referred to as rural restructuring, as traditional land uses, economic activities, and social arrangements transition to those associated with “post-productivist” or “multifunctional” landscapes. Amenity migration, the movement of people based on the draw of natural and/or cultural amenities, can be thought of as both driver and implication of this transition, resulting in significant changes in the ownership, use, and governance of rural lands, as well as in the composition and socioeconomic dynamics of rural communities. In concert with other social, economic and political processes, amenity migration is contributing to the fundamental transformation of rural communities throughout the world. This paper presents a review of the social science literature related to the concept of amenity migration, focusing on the ways in which it has been conceptualized, theorized, and documented by different communities of scholars. We then profile and summarize diverse perspectives on drivers and socioeconomic impacts, highlighting emerging challenges and opportunities related to this type of migration occurring at multiple scales and in multiple sites. The paper also identifies and discusses particular areas where further research is needed.

Keywords

Amenity migration Counterurbanization Rural restructuring Post-productivist transition 

References

  1. Beesley, K. B., Millward, H., Ilbery, B., & Harrington, L. (Eds.). (2003). The new countryside: Geographic perspectives on rural change. Halifax, NS: Brandon University and St Mary’s University.Google Scholar
  2. Bell, D. (1973). The coming of post-industrial society. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  3. Bell, M. M. (2007). The two-ness of rural life and the ends of rural scholarship. Journal of Rural Studies, 23(4), 402–415. doi: 10.1016/j.jrurstud.2007.03.003.Google Scholar
  4. Benett, D. G. (1996). Implications of retirement development in high amenity coastal areas. Journal of Applied Gerontology, 15(3), 345–360. doi: 10.1177/073346489601500305.Google Scholar
  5. Beresford, M., & Phillips, A. (2000). Protected landscapes: A conservation model for the 21st century. The George Wright Forum, 17(1), 15–26.Google Scholar
  6. Beyers, W. B., & Nelson, P. (2000). Contemporary development forces in the nonmetropolitan west: New insights from rapidly growing communities. Journal of Rural Studies, 16(4), 459–474. doi: 10.1016/S0743-0167(00)00017-6.Google Scholar
  7. Bjelland, M. D., Maley, M., Cowger, L., & Barajas, L. (2006). The quest for authentic place: The production of suburban alternatives in Minnesota’s St. Croix Valley. Urban Geography, 27(3), 253–270. doi: 10.2747/0272-3638.27.3.253.Google Scholar
  8. Booth, D. E. (1999). Spatial patterns in the economic development of the mountain west. Growth and Change, 30(3), 384–405.Google Scholar
  9. Boyle, P., & Halfacree, K. (Eds.). (1998). Migration into rural areas: Theories and issues. Chichester, UK: Wiley.Google Scholar
  10. Brogden, M., & Greenberg, J. (2003). The fight for the West: A political ecology of land use conflicts in Arizona. Human Organization, 62(3), 289–290.Google Scholar
  11. Brown, B. (1995). In timber country: Working people’s stories of environmental conflict and urban flight. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.Google Scholar
  12. Brown, J., & Mitchell, N. (2000). The stewardship approach and its relevance for protected landscapes. The George Wright Forum, 17(1), 70–79.Google Scholar
  13. Brunson, M., Shindler, B., & Steel, B. S. (1997). Consensus and dissension among rural and urban publics concerning forest management in the Pacific Northwest. In B. S. Steel (Ed.), Public lands management in the west (pp. 83–94). Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.Google Scholar
  14. Buller, H., & Hoggart, K. (1994). The social integration of British homeowners into French rural communities. Journal of Rural Studies, 10(2), 197–210. doi: 10.1016/0743-0167(94)90030-2.Google Scholar
  15. Buttel, F. H. (2003). Continuities and disjunctures in the transformation of the US agro-food system. In D. L. Brown & L. E. Swanson (Eds.), Challenges for rural America in the twenty-first century (pp. 177–189). University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State Press.Google Scholar
  16. Cadieux, K. V. (2010). Competing discourses of nature in exurbia. GeoJournal, 75(3). doi: 10.1007/s10708-009-9299-0.
  17. Carlin, T. A., & Saupe, W. E. (1993). Structural change in farming and its relationship to rural communities. In A. Hallam (Ed.), Size, structure, and the changing face of American agriculture (pp. 538–560). Boulder: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  18. Chipeniuk, R. (2004). Planning for amenity migration in Canada: Current capacities of interior British Columbian mountain communities. Mountain Research and Development, 24(4), 327–335. doi: 10.1659/0276-4741(2004)024[0327:PFAMIC]2.0.CO;2.Google Scholar
  19. Clendenning, G., Field, D. R., & Kapp, K. J. (2005). A comparison of seasonal homeowners and permanent residents on their attitudes towards wildlife management on public lands. Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 10(1), 3–17. doi: 10.1080/10871200590904842.Google Scholar
  20. Cloke, P. (2006). Conceptualizing rurality. In P. Cloke, T. Marsden, & P. Mooney (Eds.), Handbook of rural studies (pp. 18–28). London: Sage.Google Scholar
  21. Cloke, P., Marsden, T., & Mooney, P. (Eds.). (2006). Handbook of rural studies. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  22. Cloke, P., Phillips, M., & Thrift, N. (1998). Class colonisation and lifestyle strategies in Gower. In P. Boyle & K. Halfacree (Eds.), Migration into rural areas: Theories and issues (pp. 166–185). Chichester, UK: Wiley.Google Scholar
  23. Cloke, P., & Thrift, N. (1990). Class and change in rural Britain. In T. Marsden, P. Lowe, & S. Whatmore (Eds.), Rural restructuring: Global processes and local responses. London: Fulton.Google Scholar
  24. Cromartie, J. B., & Wardwell, J. M. (1999). Migrants settling far and wide in the rural West. Rural Development Perspectives, 14(2), 2–8.Google Scholar
  25. Curry, G. N., Koczberski, & Selwood., J. (2001). Cashing out, cashing in: Rural change on the south coast of Western Australia. Australian Geographer, 32(1), 109–124. doi: 10.1080/00049180020036268.Google Scholar
  26. Dahms, F., & McComb, J. (1999). ‘Counterurbanization’, interaction and functional change in a rural amenity area: A Canadian example. Journal of Rural Studies, 15(2), 129–146. doi: 10.1016/S0743-0167(98)00056-4.Google Scholar
  27. Darling, E. (2005). The city in the country: Wilderness gentrification and the rent gap. Environment and Planning A, 37(6), 1015–1032. doi: 10.1068/a37158.Google Scholar
  28. Deller, S. C., Tsung-Hsiu, T., Marcoullier, D., & English, D. B. K. (2001). The role of amenities and quality of life in rural economic growth. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 83(2), 352–365. doi: 10.1111/0002-9092.00161.Google Scholar
  29. Duffy-Deno, K. T. (1998). The effect of federal wilderness on county growth in the Intermountain Western United States. Journal of Regional Science, 38(1), 109–136. doi: 10.1111/0022-4146.00084.Google Scholar
  30. Egan, A. F., & Luloff, A. E. (2005). Exurban migration: Implications for forest communities, policies, and practices. In R. G. Lee & D. R. Field (Eds.), Communities and forests: Where people meet the land (pp. 274–290). Corvallis: Oregon State University Press.Google Scholar
  31. Elizburu, R. T. (2007). Internal migrations in the Basque country during the period of 1991–2001: Evidence of a process of counter-urbanisation. Boletin de la Asociacion de Geografos Espanoles, 43, 85–105.Google Scholar
  32. Ellingson, L., & Seidl, A. (2009). Tourists’ and residents’ values for maintaining working landscapes of the ‘Old West’. Journal of Rural Research and Policy, 4(1), 1–17.Google Scholar
  33. Ferras, C. (2007). The enigma of counterurbanization. Empirical phenomenon and chaotic concept. Eure-Revista Latinoamericano de Estudios Urbano Regionales, 33(98), 5–25.Google Scholar
  34. Fielding, T. (1998). Counterurbanisation and social class. In P. Boyle & K. Halfacree (Eds.), Migration into rural areas: Theories and issues (pp. 41–60). Chichester, UK: Wiley.Google Scholar
  35. Finley, J. C., Luloff, A. E., & Jones, S. B. (2005). Another look at private forestlands: America’s forest landowners. In R. G. Lee & D. R. Field (Eds.), Communities and forests: Where people meet the land (pp. 210–224). Corvallis: Oregon State University Press.Google Scholar
  36. Fitzgerald, D. (2006). Towards a theoretical ethnography of migration. Qualitative Sociology, 29(1), 1–24. doi: 10.1007/s11133-005-9005-6.Google Scholar
  37. Fortmann, L., & Kusel, J. (1990). New voices, old beliefs: Forest environmentalism among new and long-standing residents. Rural Sociology, 55(2), 214–232.Google Scholar
  38. Frentz, I. C., Farmer, F. L., Guldin, J. M., & Smith, K. G. (2004). Public lands and population growth. Society and Natural Resources, 17(1), 57–68.Google Scholar
  39. Garber-Yonts, B. E. (2004). The economics of amenities and migration in the Pacific Northwest: Review of selected literature with implications for national forest management. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-617. Portland, OR: US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station.Google Scholar
  40. Gentner, B. J., & Tanaka, J. A. (2002). Classifying federal public land grazing permittees. Journal of Range Management, 55(1), 2–11. doi: 10.2307/4003256.Google Scholar
  41. Ghose, R. (2004). Big sky or big sprawl? Rural gentrification and the changing cultural landscape of Missoula, Montana. Urban Geography, 25(6), 528–549. doi: 10.2747/0272-3638.25.6.528.Google Scholar
  42. Godbey, G., & Bevins, M. I. (1987). The life cycle of second home ownership: A case study. Journal of Travel Research, 25(3), 18–22. doi: 10.1177/004728758702500305.Google Scholar
  43. Gosnell, H., Haggerty, J. H., & Byorth, P. A. (2007). Ranch ownership change and new approaches to water resource management in southwestern Montana: Implications for fisheries. Journal of the American Water Resources Association, 43(4), 990–1003. doi: 10.1111/j.1752-1688.2007.00081.x.Google Scholar
  44. Gosnell, H., Haggerty, J. H., & Travis, W. R. (2006). Ranchland ownership change in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, 1990–2001: Implications for conservation. Society and Natural Resources, 19(8), 743–758. doi: 10.1080/08941920600801181.Google Scholar
  45. Gosnell, H., & Travis, W. R. (2005). Ranchland ownership dynamics in the Rocky Mountain West. Rangeland Ecology and Management, 58(2), 191–198. doi: 10.2111/1551-5028(2005)58<191:RODITR>2.0.CO;2.Google Scholar
  46. Green, G. P., Marcoullier, D., Deller, S., Erikkila, D., & Sumathi, N. R. (1996). Local dependency, land use attitudes, and economic development: Comparisons between seasonal and permanent residents. Rural Sociology, 61(3), 427–445.Google Scholar
  47. Gurran, N., & Blakely, E. J. (2007). Suffer a Sea Change? 2007. Contrasting perspectives towards urban policy and migration in Coastal Australia. Australian Geographer, 38(1), 113–131. doi: 10.1080/00049180601175899.Google Scholar
  48. Haas, W. H., & Serow, W. J. (2002). The baby boom, amenity retirement migration, and retirement communities: Will the golden age of retirement continue? Research on Aging, 24(1), 150–164. doi: 10.1177/0164027503024001009.Google Scholar
  49. Haggerty, J. H., & Travis, W. R. (2006). Out of administrative control: Absentee owners, resident elk and the shifting nature of wildlife management in southwestern Montana. Geoforum, 37(5), 816–830. doi: 10.1016/j.geoforum.2005.12.004.Google Scholar
  50. Halfacree, K. H. (1994). The importance of ‘the rural’ in the constitution of counterurbanization: Evidence from England in the 1980s. Sociologia Ruralis, 34(2–3), 164–189. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9523.1994.tb00807.x.Google Scholar
  51. Halfacree, K. H. (2006). From dropping out to leading on? British counter-cultural back-to-the-land in a changing rurality. Progress in Human Geography, 30(3), 309–336. doi: 10.1191/0309132506ph609oa.Google Scholar
  52. Halfacree, K. H. (2007). Trial by space for a ‘radical rural’: Introducing alternative localities, representations, and lives. Journal of Rural Studies, 23(2), 125–141. doi: 10.1016/j.jrurstud.2006.10.002.Google Scholar
  53. Halfacree, K. H., & Boyle, P. J. (1998). Migration, rurality and the post-productivist countryside. In P. Boyle & K. Halfacree (Eds.), Migration into rural areas: Theories and issues (pp. 1–20). Chichester, UK: Wiley.Google Scholar
  54. Hammer, R. B., & Winkler, R. L. (2006). Housing affordability and population change in the Upper Midwestern North Woods. In W. A. Kandel & D. L. Brown (Eds.), Population change and rural society (pp. 277–292). Netherlands: Springer.Google Scholar
  55. Hansen, A. J., Rasker, R., Maxwell, B., Rotella, J. J., Johnson, J. D., Parmenter, A. W., et al. (2002). Ecological causes and consequences of demographic change in the New West. BioScience, 52(2), 151–162. doi: 10.1641/0006-3568(2002)052[0151:ECACOD]2.0.CO;2.Google Scholar
  56. Hines, J. D. (2007). The persistent frontier and the rural gentrification of the Rocky Mountain West. Journal of the West, 46(1), 63–73.Google Scholar
  57. Hoey, B. A. (2005). From pi to pie: Moral narratives of noneconomic migration and starting over in the postindustrial Midwest. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, 34(5), 586–624. doi: 10.1177/0891241605279016.Google Scholar
  58. Hoey, B. A. (2006). Grey suit or brown carhartt: Narrative transition, relocation, and reorientation in the lives of corporate refugees. Journal of Anthropological Research, 62(3), 347–371.Google Scholar
  59. Hoggart, K. (2007). The diluted working classes of rural England and Wales. Journal of Rural Studies, 23(3), 305–317. doi: 10.1016/j.jrurstud.2007.01.004.Google Scholar
  60. Holmes, J. (2002). Diversity and change in Australia’s rangelands: A post-productivist transition with a difference? Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 27(3), 362–384. doi: 10.1111/1475-5661.00059.Google Scholar
  61. Holmes, J. (2006). Impulses towards a multifunctional transition in rural Australia: Gaps in the research agenda. Journal of Rural Studies, 22(2), 142–160. doi: 10.1016/j.jrurstud.2005.08.006.Google Scholar
  62. Hunter, L. M., Boardman, J. D., & Saint Onge, J. M. (2005). The association between natural amenities, rural population growth, and long-term residents’ economic well-being. Rural Sociology, 70(4), 452–469. doi: 10.1526/003601105775012714.Google Scholar
  63. Huntsinger, L., Buttolph, L., & Hopkinson, P. (1997). Ownership, management changes on California hardwood rangelands: 1985 to 1992. Journal of Range Management, 50(4), 423–430. doi: 10.2307/4003311.Google Scholar
  64. Hurley, P., & Halfacre, A. (2010). Dodging alligators, rattlesnakes, and backyard docks: A political ecology of sweetgrass basket-making and conservation in the South Carolina Lowcountry, USA. GeoJournal. doi: 10.1007/s10708-009-9276-7.
  65. Hurley, P., Halfacre, A., Levine, N., & Burke, M. (2008). Finding a “disappearing” non-timber forest resource: Using grounded visualization to explore urbanization impacts on sweetgrass basket-making in greater Mt. Pleasant, SC. Professional Geographer, 60(4), 1–23.Google Scholar
  66. Hurley, P., & Walker, P. (2004). Whose vision? Conspiracy theory and land-use planning in Nevada County, California. Environment and Planning A, 36(9), 1529–1547. doi: 10.1068/a36186.Google Scholar
  67. Ilbery, B., & Bowler, I. (1998). From agricultural productivism to post-productivism. In I. Bowler (Ed.), The geography of rural change (pp. 57–84). London: Longman.Google Scholar
  68. Jackson, P., & Kuhlken, R. (2005). A rediscovered frontier: Land use and resource issues in the new west. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.Google Scholar
  69. Jackson-Smith, D. B. (2003). Transforming America: The challenges of land use change in the twenty-first century. In D. L. Brown & L. E. Swanson (Eds.), Challenges for rural America in the twenty-first century (pp. 305–316). University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press.Google Scholar
  70. Jacob, J. (1997). New pioneers: The back-to-the-land movement and the search for a sustainable future. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press.Google Scholar
  71. Jagnow, C. P., Stedman, R., Luloff, A. E., San Julian, G. J., Finley, J. C., & Steele, J. (2006). Why landowners in Pennsylvania post their property against hunting. Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 11(1), 15–26. doi: 10.1080/10871200500470944.Google Scholar
  72. Jobes, P. (2000). Moving nearer to heaven: The illusions and disillusions of migrants to scenic rural places. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.Google Scholar
  73. Johnson, K. M., & Beale, C. L. (1994). The recent revival of widespread population growth in nonmetropolitan areas of the United States. Rural Sociology, 59(4), 655–667.Google Scholar
  74. Johnson, K. M., & Beale, C. L. (1999). The continuing population rebound in nonmetro America. Rural Development Perspectives, 13(3), 2–10.Google Scholar
  75. Johnson, K. M., & Cromartie, J. B. (2006). The rural rebound and its aftermath: Changing demographic dynamics and regional contrasts. In W. A. Kandel & D. L. Brown (Eds.), Population change and rural society (pp. 25–49). Dordrecht, the Netherlands: Springer.Google Scholar
  76. Johnson, K. M., Nucci, A., & Long, L. (2005). Population trends in metropolitan and nonmetropolitan America: Selective deconcentration and the rural rebound. Population Research and Policy Review, 24(5), 527–542. doi: 10.1007/s11113-005-4479-1.Google Scholar
  77. Johnson, J. D., & Rasker, R. (1995). The role of economic and quality of life values in rural business location. Journal of Rural Studies, 11(4), 405–416. doi: 10.1016/0743-0167(95)00029-1.Google Scholar
  78. Jones, R. E., Fly, J. M., Talley, J., & Cordell, H. K. (2003). Green migration into rural America: The new frontier of environmentalism? Society & Natural Resources, 16(3), 221–238. doi: 10.1080/08941920309159.Google Scholar
  79. Judson, D. H., Reynolds-Scanlon, S., & Popoff, C. L. (1999). Migrants to Oregon in the 1990’s: Working age, near-retirees, and retirees make different destination choices. Rural Development Perspectives, 14(2), 24–31.Google Scholar
  80. Kearney, A. (2006). Residential development patterns and neighborhood satisfaction: Impacts of density and nearby nature. Environment and Behavior, 38(1), 112–139. doi: 10.1177/0013916505277607.Google Scholar
  81. Kendra, A., & Hull, R. B. (2005). Motivations and behaviors of new forest owners in Virginia. Forest Science, 51(2), 142–154.Google Scholar
  82. Kirkey, K., & Forsyth, A. (2001). Men in the valley: Gay male life on the suburban-rural fringe. Journal of Rural Studies, 17(4), 421–441. doi: 10.1016/S0743-0167(01)00007-9.Google Scholar
  83. Knox, P. (1992). Suburbia by stealth. Geographical Magazine, 64(8), 26–29.Google Scholar
  84. Krannich, R., & Petrzelka, P. (2003). Tourism and natural amenity development: Real opportunities? In D. L. Brown & L. E. Swanson (Eds.), Challenges for Rural America in the Twenty-First Century (pp. 190–199). University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press.Google Scholar
  85. Krannich, R., Petrzelka, P., & Brehm, J. (2006). Social change and well-being in western amenity-growth communities. In W. A. Kandel & D. L. Brown (Eds.), Population change and rural society (pp. 277–292). The Netherlands: Springer.Google Scholar
  86. Kruger, L. E., Mazza, R., & Stiefel, M. (2009). Amenity migration, rural communities, and public lands. In E. M. Donoghue & V. Sturtevant (Eds.), Forest and community connections. Washington, DC: Resources for the Future.Google Scholar
  87. Leichenko, R., & Solecki, W. (2005). Exporting the American dream: The globalization of suburban consumption landscapes. Regional Studies, 39(2), 241–253. doi: 10.1080/003434005200060080.Google Scholar
  88. Lewis, G. (2000). Changing places in a rural world: The population turnaround in perspective. Geography, 85(2), 157–165.Google Scholar
  89. Liffmann, R. H., Huntsinger, L., & Forero, L. C. (2000). To ranch or not to ranch: Home on the urban range? Journal of Range Management, 53(4), 362–370. doi: 10.2307/4003745.Google Scholar
  90. Loffler, R., & Steinecke, E. (2006). Counterurbanization and its socioeconomic effects in high mountain areas of the Sierra Nevada (California/Nevada). Mountain Research and Development, 26(1), 64–71.Google Scholar
  91. Loffler, R., & Steinecke, E. (2007). Amenity migration in the US Sierra Nevada. Geographical Review, 97(1), 67–88. doi: 10.1659/0276-4741(2006)026[0064:CAISEI]2.0.CO;2.Google Scholar
  92. Lorah, P., & Southwick, R. (2003). Environmental protection, population change, and economic development in the rural western United States. Population and Environment, 24(3), 255–272. doi: 10.1023/A:1021299011243.Google Scholar
  93. Lowe, P., Murdoch, J., Marsden, T., Munton, R., & Flynn, A. (1993). Regulating the new rural spaces: The uneven development of land. Journal of Rural Studies, 9(3), 205–222. doi: 10.1016/0743-0167(93)90067-T.Google Scholar
  94. Mahon, M. (2007). New populations; shifting expectations: The changing experience of Irish rural space and place. Journal of Rural Studies, 23(3), 345–356. doi: 10.1016/j.jrurstud.2007.01.006.Google Scholar
  95. Marcoullier, D. W., Clendenning, J. G., & Kedzior, R. (2002). Natural amenity-led development and rural planning. Journal of Planning Literature, 16(4), 515–542. doi: 10.1177/088541202400903572.Google Scholar
  96. Marsden, T., Murdoch, J., Lowe, P., Munton, R., & Flynn, A. (1993). Constructing the countryside. London: UCL Press.Google Scholar
  97. McCarthy, J. (2005). Rural geography: Multifunctional rural geographies—reactionary or radical? Progress in Human Geography, 29(6), 773–782. doi: 10.1191/0309132505ph584pr.Google Scholar
  98. McCarthy, J. (2008). Rural geography: Globalizing the countryside. Progress in Human Geography, 32(1), 129–137. doi: 10.1177/0309132507082559.Google Scholar
  99. McCool, S. F., & Kruger, L. E. (2003). Human migration and natural resources: Implications for land managers and challenges for researchers. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-580. Portland, OR: US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station.Google Scholar
  100. McGranahan, D. A. (1999). Natural amenities drive rural population change (No. 781). Washington, DC: Food and Rural Economics Division, Economic Research Service, US Department of Agriculture.Google Scholar
  101. McKean, J. R., Johnson, D. M., Johnson, R. L., & Taylor, R. G. (2005). Can superior natural amenities create high-quality employment opportunities? The case of nonconsumptive river recreation in central Idaho. Society & Natural Resources, 18(8), 749–758. doi: 10.1080/08941920591005304.Google Scholar
  102. Meijering, L., van Hoven, B., & Huigen, P. (2007). Constructing ruralities: The case of the Hobbitstee, Netherlands. Journal of Rural Studies, 23(3), 357–366. doi: 10.1016/j.jrurstud.2007.01.002.Google Scholar
  103. Mitchell, C. J. A. (2004). Making sense of counterurbanization. Journal of Rural Studies, 20(1), 15–34. doi: 10.1016/S0743-0167(03)00031-7.Google Scholar
  104. Moss, L. A. (2006). The amenity migrants: Seeking and sustaining mountains and their cultures. Cambridge, MA: CABI.Google Scholar
  105. Murdoch, J., Lowe, P., Ward, N., & Marsden, T. (2003). The differentiated countryside. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  106. Nelson, P. B. (1997). Migration, sources of income, and community change in the nonmetropolitan Northwest. Professional Geographer, 49(4), 418–430. doi: 10.1111/0033-0124.00088.Google Scholar
  107. Nelson, P. B. (1999). Quality of life, nontraditional income, and economic growth: New development opportunities for the rural West. Rural Development Perspectives, 14(2), 32–37.Google Scholar
  108. Nelson, P. B. (2001). Rural restructuring in the American West: Land use, family and class discourses. Journal of Rural Studies, 17(4), 395–407. doi: 10.1016/S0743-0167(01)00002-X.Google Scholar
  109. Nelson, P. B. (2002). Perceptions of restructuring in the rural west: Insights from the “cultural turn”. Society & Natural Resources, 15(10), 903–921. doi: 10.1080/08941920290107648.Google Scholar
  110. Nelson, P. B. (2005). Migration, the regional redistribution of nonearnings income in the United States: Metropolitan, nonmetropolitan perspectives from 1975 to 2000. Environment and Planning A, 37(9), 1613–1636. doi: 10.1068/a37170.Google Scholar
  111. Nelson, P. B., Nicholson, J. P., & Stege, E. H. (2004). The baby boom and nonmetropolitan population change, 1975–1990. Growth and Change, 35(4), 525–544. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2257.2004.00260.x.Google Scholar
  112. Nepal, S. K. (2007). Tourism and rural settlements: Nepal’s Annapurna region. Annals of Tourism Research, 34(4), 855–875. doi: 10.1016/j.annals.2007.03.012.Google Scholar
  113. Nesbitt, T., & Weiner, D. (2001). Conflicting environmental imaginaries and the politics of nature in Central Appalachia. Geoforum, 32(3), 333–334. doi: 10.1016/S0016-7185(00)00047-6.Google Scholar
  114. Ní Laoire, C. (2007). The ‘green green grass of home’? Return migration to rural Ireland. Journal of Rural Studies, 23(3), 332–344. doi: 10.1016/j.jrurstud.2007.01.005.Google Scholar
  115. Ohman, D. (1999). Restructuring and well-being in the non-metropolitan Pacific Northwest. Growth and Change, 30(2), 161–183. doi: 10.1111/0017-4815.00109.Google Scholar
  116. Ory, D. T., & Mokhtarian, P. L. (2006). Which came first, the telecommuting or the residential relocation? An empirical analysis of causality. Urban Geography, 27(7), 590–609. doi: 10.2747/0272-3638.27.7.590.Google Scholar
  117. Otterstrom, S. M., & Shumway, J. M. (2003). Deserts and oases: The continuing concentration of population in the American Mountain West. Journal of Rural Studies, 19(4), 445–462. doi: 10.1016/S0743-0167(03)00028-7.Google Scholar
  118. Paniagua, A. (2002). Counterurbanisation and new social class in rural Spain: The environmental and rural dimension revisited. Scottish Geographical Journal, 118(1), 1–18. doi: 10.1080/00369220218737133.Google Scholar
  119. Phillips, M. (1993). Rural gentrification and the processes of class colonisation. Journal of Rural Studies, 9(2), 123–140. doi: 10.1016/0743-0167(93)90026-G.Google Scholar
  120. Phillips, M. (2002). The production, symbolisation and socialisation of gentrification: Impressions from two Berkshire villages. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers NS, 27(3), 282–308. doi: 10.1111/1475-5661.00056.Google Scholar
  121. Phillips, M. (2004). Other geographies of gentrification. Progress in Human Geography, 28(1), 5–30. doi: 10.1191/0309132504ph458oa.Google Scholar
  122. Phillips, M., Page, S., Saratsi, E., Tansey, K., & Moore, K. (2008). Diversity, scale and green landscapes in the gentrification process: Traversing ecological and social science perspectives. Applied Geography, 28(1), 54–76. doi: 10.1016/j.apgeog.2007.07.003.Google Scholar
  123. Ploch, L. A. (1978). The reversal in migration patterns: Some rural development consequences. Rural Sociology, 43(2), 293–303.Google Scholar
  124. Power, T. M. (1996). Lost landscapes and failed economies: The search for a value of place. Washington, D.C.: Island Press.Google Scholar
  125. Power, T. M., & Barrett, R. N. (2001). Post-cowboy economics: Pay and prosperity in the new American west. Washington, D.C.: Island Press.Google Scholar
  126. Rasker, R. (2005). Wilderness for its own sake or as economic asset? Journal of Land, Resources Environmental Law, 25(1), 15–20.Google Scholar
  127. Rasker, R. (2006). An exploration into the economic impact of industrial development versus conservation on western public lands. Society & Natural Resources, 19(3), 191–207. doi: 10.1080/08941920500460583.Google Scholar
  128. Rasker, R., & Hackman, A. (1996). Economic development and the conservation of large carnivores. Conservation Biology, 10(4), 991–1002. doi: 10.1046/j.1523-1739.1996.10040991.x.Google Scholar
  129. Rasker, R., & Hansen, A. J. (2000). Natural amenities and population growth in the Greater Yellowstone region. Human Ecology Review, 7(2), 30–40.Google Scholar
  130. Riebsame, W. E. (Ed.). (1997). Atlas of the new west: Portrait of a changing region. New York: W.W. Norton.Google Scholar
  131. Riebsame, W. E., Gosnell, H., & Theobald, D. M. (1996). Land use and landscape change in the Colorado Mountains I: Theory, scale and pattern. Mountain Research and Development, 16(4), 395–405. doi: 10.2307/3673989.Google Scholar
  132. Robbins, P., Meehan, K., Gosnell, H., & Gilbertz, S. (2009). Writing the New West: A critical review. Rural Sociology, 74(3).Google Scholar
  133. Robertson, M. M. (2004). The neoliberalization of ecosystem services: Wetland mitigation banking and problems in environmental governance. Geoforum, 35(3), 361–373. doi: 10.1016/j.geoforum.2003.06.002.Google Scholar
  134. Rothman, H. K. (1998). Devil’s Bargains: Tourism in the twentieth-century American west. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas.Google Scholar
  135. Rudzitis, G. (1993). Migration, sense of place, and the American West. Urban Geography, 14(6), 574–584.Google Scholar
  136. Rudzitis, G. (1999). Amenities increasingly draw people to the rural West. Rural Development Perspectives, 14(2), 9–13.Google Scholar
  137. Rudzitis, G., & Johansen, H. E. (1989). Migration into western wilderness counties: Causes and consequences. Western Wildlands, Spring, 19–23.Google Scholar
  138. Rudzitis, G., & Johnson, R. (2000). The impact of wilderness and other wildlands on local economies and regional development trends. USDA Forest Service Proceedings RMRS-P-15-Vol 2, pp. 14–26. US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Ft. Collins, CO.Google Scholar
  139. Saint Onge, J. M., Hunter, L. M., & Boardman, J. D. (2007). Population growth in high-amenity rural areas: Does it bring socioeconomic benefits for long-term residents? Social Science Quarterly, 88(2), 367–381. doi: 10.1111/j.1540-6237.2007.00462.x.Google Scholar
  140. Salamon, S. (2003a). From hometown to nontown: Rural community effects of suburbanization. Rural Sociology, 68(1), 1–24.Google Scholar
  141. Salamon, S. (2003b). Newcomers to old towns: Suburbanization of the heartland. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  142. Sampson, N., & DeCoster, L. (2000). Forest fragmentation: Implications for sustainable private forests. Journal of Forestry, 98(3), 4–8.Google Scholar
  143. Sayre, N. F. (2002). Ranching, endangered species, and urbanization in the southwest: Species of capital. Tucson: University of Arizona Press.Google Scholar
  144. Sayre, N. F. (2004). The need for qualitative research to understand ranch management. Journal of Range Management, 57(6), 668–674. doi: 10.2307/4004026.Google Scholar
  145. Schnaiberg, J., Riera, J., Turner, M. G., & Voss, P. R. (2002). Explaining human settlement patterns in a recreational lake district: Vilas County, Wisconsin, USA. Environmental Management, 30(1), 24–34. doi: 10.1007/s00267-002-2450-z.Google Scholar
  146. Scott, A. J., Shorten, J., Owen, R., Owen, I. (2010). What kind of countryside do the public want: Community visions from Wales UK? GeoJournal, 75(3). doi: 10.1007/s10708-009-9256-y
  147. Serow, W. J. (2003). Economic consequences of retiree concentrations: A review of North American studies. Gerontologist, 43(6), 897–903.Google Scholar
  148. Sheridan, T. E. (2007). Embattled ranchers, endangered species, and urban sprawl: The political ecology of the new American West. Annual Review of Anthropology, 36, 121–138. doi: 10.1146/annurev.anthro.36.081406.094413.Google Scholar
  149. Short, D., & Stockdale, A. (1999). English migrants in the Scottish countryside: Opportunities for rural Scotland? Scottish Geographical Journal, 115(3), 177–192. doi: 10.1080/00369229918737063.Google Scholar
  150. Shumway, J. M., & Davis, J. A. (1996). Nonmetropolitan population change in the Mountain West: 1970–1995. Rural Sociology, 61(3), 513–529.Google Scholar
  151. Shumway, J. M., & Otterstrom, S. M. (2001). Spatial patterns of migration and income change in the Mountain West: The dominance of service-based, amenity-rich counties. Professional Geographer, 53(4), 492–502. doi: 10.1111/0033-0124.00299.Google Scholar
  152. Smith, D. P. (1998). The green potential of West Yorkshire. Regional Review, 14, 6–7.Google Scholar
  153. Smith, D. P. (2002a). Rural gatekeepers and ‘greentrified’ Pennine rurality: Opening and closing the access gates? Social and Cultural Geography, 3(4), 447–463. doi: 10.1080/1464936021000032432.Google Scholar
  154. Smith, D. P. (2002b). Extending the temporal and spatial limits of gentrification: A research agenda for population geographers. International Journal of Population Geography, 8(6), 385–394. doi: 10.1002/ijpg.267.Google Scholar
  155. Smith, D. P. (2007). The ‘buoyancy’ of ‘other’ geographies of gentrification: Going ‘back-to-the water’ and the commodification of marginality. Tijdschrift Voor Economische en Sociale Geografie, 98(1), 53–67. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9663.2007.00376.x.Google Scholar
  156. Smith, D. P., & Holt, L. (2005). ‘Lesbian migrants in the gentrified valley’ and ‘other’ geographies of rural gentrification. Journal of Rural Studies, 21(3), 313–322. doi: 10.1016/j.jrurstud.2005.04.002.Google Scholar
  157. Smith, M. D., & Krannich, R. S. (2000). “Culture clash” revisited: Newcomer and longer-term residents’ attitudes toward land use, development, and environmental issues in rural communities in the Rocky Mountain West. Rural Sociology, 65(3), 396–421.Google Scholar
  158. Smith, D. P., & Phillips, D. A. (2001). Socio-cultural representations of greentrified Pennine rurality. Journal of Rural Studies, 17(4), 457–469. doi: 10.1016/S0743-0167(01)00014-6.Google Scholar
  159. Smutny, G. (2002). Patterns of growth and change: Depicting the impacts of restructuring in Idaho. Professional Geographer, 54(3), 438–453. doi: 10.1111/0033-0124.00341.Google Scholar
  160. Sofranko, A. J., & Williams, J. D. (1980). Rebirth of rural America: Rural migration to the midwest. Ames, Iowa: North Central Region Centre for Rural Development, Iowa State Unviersity.Google Scholar
  161. Stauber, K. (2001). Why invest in rural America—and how? A critical public policy question for the 21st century. Economic Review, Second Quarter, 33–63.Google Scholar
  162. Stedman, R. C., Goetz, S. J., & Weagraff, B. (2006). Does second home development adversely affect rural life? In W. A. Kandel & D. L. Brown (Eds.), Population change and rural society (pp. 277–292). Netherlands: Springer.Google Scholar
  163. Stegner, W. (1954). Beyond the hundredth meridian: John Wesley Powell and the second opening of the west. New York: Penguin.Google Scholar
  164. Stein, S. M., McRoberts, R. E., Alig, R. J., Nelson, M. D., Theobald, D. M., Eley, M., Dechter, M., & Carr, M. (2005). Forests on the Edge: Housing Development on America’s Private Forests. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-636. Portland, OR: US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station.Google Scholar
  165. Stewart, S. I. (2002). Amenity migration. In K. Luft & S. MacDonald (Eds.), Trends 2000: Shaping the future: 5th outdoor recreation & tourism trends symposium. (pp. 369–378). 2000 September 17–20. East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University.Google Scholar
  166. Stewart, S. I., & Stynes, D. J. (1993). Toward a dynamic model of complex tourism choices: The seasonal home location decision. In J. C. Crotts & W. F. van Raaij (Eds.), Economic psychology of travel and tourism. Binghamton, NY: Haworth Press.Google Scholar
  167. Stockdale, A. (2006). Migration: Pre-requisite for rural economic regeneration? Journal of Rural Studies, 22(3), 354–366. doi: 10.1016/j.jrurstud.2005.11.001.Google Scholar
  168. Stockdale, A., Findlay, A., & Short, D. (2000). The repopulation of rural Scotland: Opportunity and threat. Journal of Rural Studies, 16(2), 243–257. doi: 10.1016/S0743-0167(99)00045-5.Google Scholar
  169. Tammaru, T., Kulu, H., & Kask, I. (2004). Urbanization, suburbanization, and counterurbanization in Estonia. Eurasian Geography and Economics, 45(3), 212–229. doi: 10.2747/1538-7216.45.3.212.Google Scholar
  170. Taylor, L. (2010). No boundaries: Exurbia and the study of contemporary urban dispersion. GeoJournal, 75(3). doi: 10.1007/s10708-009-9300-y
  171. Theobald, D. M., Gosnell, H., & Riebsame, W. E. (1996). Land use and landscape change in the Colorado Mountains II: A case study of the East River Valley. Mountain Research and Development, 16(4), 407–418. doi: 10.2307/3673990.Google Scholar
  172. Torrell, A., Rimbey, N. R., Ramirez, O. A., & McCollum, D. W. (2005). Income earning potential versus consumptive amenities in determining ranchland value. Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, 30(3), 537–560.Google Scholar
  173. Travis, W. R. (2007). New geographies of the American west: Land use and the changing patterns of place. Washington, DC: Island Press.Google Scholar
  174. Ullman, E. L. (1954). Amenities as a factor in regional growth. Geographical Review, 44(1), 119–132. doi: 10.2307/211789.Google Scholar
  175. van Dam, F., Heins, S., & Elbersen, B. S. (2002). Lay discourses of the rural and stated and revealed preferences for rural living: Some evidence of the existence of a rural idyll in the Netherlands. Journal of Rural Studies, 18(4), 461–476. doi: 10.1016/S0743-0167(02)00035-9.Google Scholar
  176. Vias, A. C. (1999). Jobs follow people in the rural Rocky Mountain West. Rural Development Perspectives, 14(2), 14–23.Google Scholar
  177. Vias, A. C., & Carruthers, J. I. (2005). Regional development and land use change in the Rocky Mountain West, 1982–1997. Growth and Change, 36(2), 244–272. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2257.2005.00276.x.Google Scholar
  178. Walker, P., & Fortmann, L. (2003). Whose landscape? A political ecology of the ‘exurban’ Sierra. Cultural Geographies, 10(4), 469–491. doi: 10.1191/1474474003eu285oa.Google Scholar
  179. Walker, P. A., & Hurley, P. T. (2004). Collaboration derailed: The politics of “community-based” resource management in Nevada County. Society & Natural Resources, 17(8), 735–751. doi: 10.1080/08941920490480723.Google Scholar
  180. Wilkinson, C. F. (1992). Crossing the next Meridian: Land, water, and the future of the west. Washington, DC: Island Press.Google Scholar
  181. Williams, J. D. (1979). Motivations for the immigration component of population turnaround in nonmetropolitan areas. Demography, 16, 239. doi: 10.2307/2061141.Google Scholar
  182. Wilson, G. A. (2001). From productivism to post-productivism… and back again? Exploring the (un)changed natural and mental landscapes of European agriculture. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 26(1), 77–102. doi: 10.1111/1475-5661.00007.Google Scholar
  183. Wilson, G. A. (2006). Multifunctional agriculture: A transition theory perspective. Cambridge, MA: CABI.Google Scholar
  184. Winkler, R., Field, D. R., Luloff, A. E., Krannich, R. S., & Williams, T. (2007). Social landscapes of the Intermountain West: A comparison of ‘Old West’ and ‘New West’ communities. Rural Sociology, 72(3), 478–501. doi: 10.1526/003601107781799281.Google Scholar
  185. Woods, M. (2003). Rural geography: Processes, responses, and experiences in rural restructuring . London: Sage Publishing.Google Scholar
  186. Woods, M. (2007). Engaging the global countryside: Globalization, hybridity and the reconstitution of rural place. Progress in Human Geography, 31(4), 485–507. doi: 10.1177/0309132507079503.Google Scholar
  187. Woods, M. (2010). The local politics of the global countryside: Boosterism, aspirational ruralism and the contested reconstitution of Queenstown, New Zealand. Geojournal. doi: 10.1007/s10708-009-9268-7
  188. Wulfhorst, J. D., Rimbey, N., & Darden, T. (2006). Sharing the rangelands, competing for sense of place. American Behavioral Scientist, 50(2), 166–186. doi: 10.1177/0002764206290631.Google Scholar
  189. Young, T. H. N. (2001). Democracy or expertise? objectivity as an elusive ideal in the resolution of a Vermont land use dispute. GeoJournal, 75(3). doi: 10.1007/s10708-009-9257-x
  190. Yung, L., & Belsky, J. (2007). Private property rights and community goods: Negotiating landowner cooperation amid changing ownership on the Rocky Mountain Front. Society & Natural Resources, 20(8), 689–703. doi: 10.1080/08941920701216586.Google Scholar
  191. Yung, L., Friemund, W. A., & Belsky, J. M. (2003). The politics of place: Understanding meaning, common ground, and political difference on the Rocky Mountain Front. Forest Science, 49(6), 855–866.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Oregon State UniversityCorvallisUSA

Personalised recommendations