Sex offenders, housing and spatial restriction zones
- 342 Downloads
Sex offenders are currently a major focus of crime control policies at the local, regional, state and federal levels throughout the United States. In part, the perceived threat of offender recidivism has motivated legislators to launch stringent community notification programs and to establish spatial restriction zones (SRZs) around schools, daycare facilities and public parks. The purpose of these restriction zones is to help protect children and minimize their exposure to convicted sex offenders living in the community. In addition to the concern that the implementation of SRZs dramatically reduces viable housing options for registered sex offenders, there are concerns that offenders will be forced to reside in socially disorganized areas that may encourage recidivism. The purpose of this paper is to explore the demographic and socioeconomic differences between areas inside and outside SRZs. Implications of these results for sex offender policies are discussed.
KeywordsSex offenders Social disorganization Spatial restriction zones Housing Spatial analysis GIS
- 2008. Ohio-542. Hyle v. Porter. URL: http://www.sconet.state.oh.us/Communications_Office/summaries/2008/0220/062187.asp.
- Adam Walsh Child Protection Act. (2006). Public Law 109-248. 42 U.S.C § 16901–16962.Google Scholar
- Apartmentratings.com. (2008). Cincinnati-Hamilton OH-KY-IN Apartment Rental Rates. URL: http://www.apartmentratings.com/rate?a=MSAAvgRentalPrice&msa=1642.
- Baker, D. (1999). Slamming the door. ABA Journal, 24–25 (January).Google Scholar
- Brown, J. (2007). Sex offenders pushed to ‘burbs. Cincinnati Enquirer. URL: http://news.enquirer.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20070501/NEWS01/705010422/1056/COL02.
- Colorado Department of Public Safety [CDPS]. (2004). Report on safety issues raised by living arrangements for and location of sex offenders in the community. URL: http://dcj.state.co.us/odvsom.
- Cowan, D., Pantazis, C., & Gilroy, R. (2001). Social housing as crime control: An examination of the role of housing management in policing sex offenders. Social & Legal Studies, 10, 435–457.Google Scholar
- Grubin, D. (1998). Sex offending against children: Understanding the risk. Police Research Series Paper 99. URL: http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk/rds/prgpdfs/fprs99.pdf.
- Hamilton County Sheriff’s Office [HCSO]. (2006). Hamilton County Sheriff’s Office Records Division Registered Hamilton County Sex Offenders (22 September 2006). Retrieved 11 June 2005, from http://www.hcso.org/PublicServices/SexOffenders/sexoffenders.aspx.
- Hughes, A. (2004). Minneapolis neighborhoods home to clusters of released sex offenders. Minnesota Public Radio. URL: http://news.minnesota.publicradio.org/features/2004/02/05_hughesa_offenders/.
- Jacob Wetterling Crimes Against Children and Sexually Violent Offender Registration Act. (1994). Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994, H.R 3355 C.F.R. § 170101.Google Scholar
- Johnson, S. D., Bowers, K., & Hirschfield, A. (1997). New insights into the spatial and temporal distribution of repeat victimization. Criminology, 37, 224–241.Google Scholar
- L-188-99. Mulligan v. Panther Valley Property Owners Association. Warren County, New Jersey.Google Scholar
- LaFollette, H. (2005). Collateral consequences of punishment. Journal of Applied Philosophy, 241–261. URL: http://www.stpt.usf.edu/hhl/papers/Collateral_Consequences.htm.
- Langan, P. A., Schmitt, E. L., & Durose, M. R. (2003). Recidivism of sex offenders released from prison in 1994. (NCJ 198281). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice.Google Scholar
- Lochner, L., & Moretti, L. P. (2001). The effect of education on crime: Evidence from prison inmates, arrests and self-reports. Working Paper 8605, National Bureau of Economic Research. URL: http://www.nber.org/papers/w8605.pdf.
- Maloney, J. (2006). Anger at sex offender cluster. New York Newsday. URL: http://www.newsday.com/news/local/longisland/nylisex274907930sep27,0,1038388.story?coll=ny-linews-utility.
- Megan’s Law (1996). Public Law 104-145 C.F.R. § 170101 (d) of the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994.Google Scholar
- Moore, A. (1999). Housing and sex offenders in Scotland: A practice note. Edinburgh: Chartered Institute of Housing in Scotland.Google Scholar
- Mustaine, E. E., & Tewksbury, R. (2000). Comparing the lifestyles of victims, offenders, and victim-offenders: A routine activity theory assessment of similarities and differences for criminal incident participants. Sociological Focus, 33, 339–362.Google Scholar
- National Center for Missing and Exploited Children [NCMEC]. (2008). Map of Registered Sex Offenders in the United States. URL: http://www.missingkids.com/en_US/documents/sex-offender-map.pdf.
- Nieto, M., & Jung, D. (2006). The impact of residency restrictions on sex offenders and correctional management practices: A literature review. California Research Bureau, August.Google Scholar
- Norman-Eady, S. (2007). Sex offenders’ residency restrictions. State of Connecticut Office of Legislative Research Report 2007-R-0380. URL: http://www.cga.ct.gov/2007/rpt/2007-R-0380.htm.
- Petrunik, M. (2003). The hare and the tortoise: Dangerousness and sex offender policy in the United States and Canada. Canadian Journal of Criminology & Criminal Justice, 45, 43–72.Google Scholar
- Proposition 83. (2006). Sex offenders sexually violent predators. Punishment, Residence Restrictions and Monitoring. Initiative Statute. State of California. URL: http://www.sos.ca.gov/elections/vig_06/general_06/pdf/proposition_83/entire_prop83.pdf.
- Putnum, R. (2001). Bowling alone. New York: Simon & Schuster.Google Scholar
- Sampson, R. J., Raudenbush, S. W., & Earls, F. (1997). Neighborhoods and violent crime: A multilevel study of collective efficacy. Science , 277, 918–924.Google Scholar
- Shaw, C., & McKay, H. (1942). Juvenile delinquency and urban areas: A study of rates of delinquents in relation to differential characteristics of local communities in American cities. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
- Tewksbury, R. (2002). Validity and utility of the Kentucky sex offender registry. Federal Probation, 66, 21–26.Google Scholar
- Tewksbury, R., & Lees, M. (2005). Stigma, harassment, vulnerability and practical difficulties: registered sex offenders’ experiences in the community. Paper presented at the 2005 annual meetings of the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences, Chicago.Google Scholar
- Tewksbury, R., & Mustaine, E. E. (2006). Where to find sex offenders: An examination of residential locations and neighborhood conditions. Criminal Justice Studies, 19, 61–75.Google Scholar
- Townsley, M., Homel, R., & Chaseling, J. (2003). Infectious burglaries: A test of the near repeat hypothesis. British Journal of Criminology, 43, 615–633.Google Scholar
- Zarrella, J., & Oppmann, P. (2007). Florida housing sex offenders under bridge. URL: http://www.cnn.com/2007/LAW/04/05/bridge.sex.offenders/.