, Volume 72, Issue 3–4, pp 133–135 | Cite as

Volunteered geographic information: key questions, concepts and methods to guide emerging research and practice

  • Sarah Elwood

New web services that support user-generated and user-modified maps and spatial data are continuing to emerge at a rapid pace, as are geo-enabled digital devices that can collect and disseminate data with spatial attributes. Interactive web services such as GoogleMaps or Wikimapia allow users to create their own maps online or contribute to and edit geographic information contributed by others. Users may import or ‘mash up’ shared source codes (application programming interfaces or “APIs”) into their own web mapping services, or use markup languages to ‘geotag’ online content such as photographs with information about their geographic location. New forms of digital spatial data are created through a growing proportion of our daily activities, such as using electronic payment cards to board a bus whose location is tracked by the public transit agency, or using GPS-enabled cell phones that trace our location and movements throughout the day. These technologies and practices are...


Geographic Information Geospatial Data Spatial Data Infrastructure Transit Agency Geospatial Technology 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of GeographyUniversity of WashingtonSeattleUSA

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