GeoJournal

, Volume 67, Issue 2, pp 107–122

Frontline soldiers of globalisation: Port–city evolution and regional competition

Article

Abstract

This paper is an empirical attempt to measure the relative concentration of port–city functions in the context of globalisation. It reviews a number of urban and port issues regarding their complementary and contradictory aspects about the evolution of port cities. The main purpose is to verify how port function is more or less important to local economies, compared to other functions, through a temporal and global approach. Based on a matrix of port–city centrality and intermediacy, the main indicators available for international comparison are urban population and container throughput. An analysis of 653 places between 1970 and 2005 period is provided, using the relative concentration index (RCI) proposed by Vallega. The appropriate geographical scale to measure the relative evolution of port cities at a global level is discussed. Results tend to question previous models which consider functional and spatial separation between the city and its port as an ineluctable process. The port–city evolution appears to be gradual rather than linear or chaotic, and in many cases largely influenced by regional factors and local strategies.

Keywords

Containerisation Globalisation Port city Relative concentration index 

References

  1. Banister, D. (Ed.) (1995). Transport and urban development. Oxford: Alexandrine Press.Google Scholar
  2. Bird, J. (1963). The major seaports of the United Kingdom. London: Hutchinson of London.Google Scholar
  3. Bird, J. (1973). Of central places, cities and seaports. Geography, 58, 105–118.Google Scholar
  4. Bird, J. (1977). Centrality and cities. London: Routledge Direct Editions.Google Scholar
  5. Boyer, J. C., & Vigarié, A. (1982). Les ports et l’organisation urbaine et régionale. Bulletin de l’Association des Géographes Français, 487, 159–182.Google Scholar
  6. Brinkhoff, T. (2006). Cities and agglomerations of the world. Retrieved from http://www.citypopulation.de/cities.html.
  7. Brocard, M. (1988). Les relations fonctionnelles entre le port et la ville. Paper presented at the 1st International Conference of the International Association Cities and Ports, Le Havre.Google Scholar
  8. Carroue, L. (2002). Géographie de la mondialisation. Paris: Armand Colin.Google Scholar
  9. Charlier, J. (1988). Ports en évolution, espaces en mutation. Paper presented at the 1st International Conference of the International Association Cities and Ports, Le Havre.Google Scholar
  10. Charlier, J. (1992). The regeneration of old port areas for new port uses. In B. S. Hoyle & D. A. Pinder (Eds.), European port cities in transition (pp. 137–154). London: Belhaven Press.Google Scholar
  11. Charlier, J. (1994). Sur le concept de tonnages pondérés en économie portuaire. L’exemple du northern range. Cahiers Scientifiques du Transport, 29, 75–84.Google Scholar
  12. Cheshire, P. C., & Hay, D. G. (1989). Urban problems in Western Europe: an economic analysis. London, Boston: Unwin Hyman.Google Scholar
  13. De Langen, P. W. (1998). The future of small and medium sized ports. In G. Sciutto & C. A. Brebia (Eds.), Marine engineering and ports (pp. 263–279). Boston, Southampton: WIT Press.Google Scholar
  14. Ducruet, C. (2005). Approche comparée du développement des villes-ports à l’échelle mondiale: problèmes théoriques et méthodologiques. Cahiers Scientifiques du Transport, 48, 59–79.Google Scholar
  15. Ducruet, C., & Jeong, O. (2005). European port–city interface and its Asian application. Anyang: Korea Research Institute for Human Settlements.Google Scholar
  16. Fleming, D. K., & Hayuth, Y. (1994). Spatial characteristics of transportation hubs: Centrality and intermediacy. Journal of Transport Geography, 2, 3–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Frémont, A., & Ducruet, C. (2005). The emergence of a mega port, from the local to the global, the case of Busan. Tijdschrift voor Econ. En Soc. Geografie, 96, 421–432.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Fujita, M., & Mori, T. (1996). The role of ports in the making of major cities: Self-agglomeration and hub-effect. Journal of Development Economics, 49, 93–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Goss, R. O. (1990). Economic policies and seaports: The economic functions of seaports. Maritime Policy and Management, 17, 207–219.Google Scholar
  20. Gripaios, R. (1999). Ports and their influence on local economies: A UK perspective. The Dock and Harbour Authority, 2, 235–241.Google Scholar
  21. Hayuth, Y. (1981). Containerization and the load center concept. Economic Geography, 57, 160–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Helders, S. (2006). The world gazetteer. Retrieved from http://www.world-gazetteer.com/home.htm.
  23. Hoyle, B. S. (1989). The port–city interface: Trends, problems, and examples. Geoforum, 20, 429–435.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hoyle, B. S., & Pinder, D. (Eds.) (1992). European port cities in transition. London: Belhaven Press.Google Scholar
  25. Kenyon, J. B. (1974). Elements in inter-port competition in the United States. In M. E. Eliot Hurst (Ed.), Transportation geography: Comments and readings (pp. 231–253). New York: McGraw Hill Series in Geography.Google Scholar
  26. Kidwai, A. H. (1989). Port cities in a national system of ports and cities: A geographical analysis of India in the 20th century. In F. Broeze (Ed.), Brides of the sea: Port cities of Asia from the 16th–20th centuries (pp. 207–222). Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.Google Scholar
  27. Lahmeyer, J. (2006). Population statistics. Retrieved from http://www.library.uu.nl/wesp/populstat/populhome.html.
  28. Lee, S. W. (2005). Interaction between city and port in Asian hub port cities. Dissertation, University of Seoul.Google Scholar
  29. Lee, S. W., Kim, C. H., & Jung, H.W. (2005). A study of port performance related to port backup area in ESCAP region. Seoul: Korea Maritime Institute.Google Scholar
  30. Lemarchand, A. (2005). The container traffic by ports and ranges: between scale and random, there is governance. Paper presented at the 5th Inha & Le Havre International Conference, Le Havre.Google Scholar
  31. Lever, W. F. (1995). Regional economic growth and port activities in European cities. Paper presented at the 5th International Conference of the International Association Cities and Ports, Dakar.Google Scholar
  32. Moriconi-Ebrard, F. (1994). Geopolis: Pour comparer les villes du monde. Paris: Economica.Google Scholar
  33. Murphey, R. (1989). On the evolution of the port city. In F. Broeze (Ed.), Brides of the sea: Port cities of Asia from the 16th–20th centuries (pp. 223–245). Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.Google Scholar
  34. Noin, D. (1999). La population des littoraux du monde. L’Information Géographique, 2, 65–73.Google Scholar
  35. O’Connor, K. (1989). Australian ports, metropolitan areas and trade-related services. Australian Geographer, 20, 167–172.Google Scholar
  36. OECD (2004). Busan, Korea. Paris: OECD Territorial Reviews.Google Scholar
  37. Pearson, M. N. (1998). Port cities and intruders. Baltimore and London: The John Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  38. Pesquera, M. A., & Ruiz, J. R. (1996). Sustainable development strategies for cities and ports. New York and Geneva: UNCTAD Monographs on Port Management, n°14.Google Scholar
  39. Pumain, D. (1997). Pour une théorie évolutive des villes. L’Espace Géographique, 2, 119–134.Google Scholar
  40. Reeves, P. (1989). Studying the Asian port city. In F. Broeze (Ed.), Brides of the sea: Port cities of Asia from the 16th–20th centuries (pp. 29–53). Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.Google Scholar
  41. Rodrigue, J. P. (2003). L’autorité portuaire de New York et New Jersey: changements globaux, gains régionaux et problèmes locaux du développement portuaire. Les Cahiers Scientifiques du Transport, 44, 55–75Google Scholar
  42. Rodrigue, J. P., Comtois, C., & Slack, B. (1997). Transportation and spatial cycles: Evidence from maritime systems. Journal of Transport Geography, 5, 87–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Rodrigue, J. P., Comtois, C., & Slack, B. (2006). The geography of transport systems. Retrieved from http://people.hofstra.edu/geotrans/eng/ch3en/conc3en/worldcontainertraffic. html.Google Scholar
  44. Saint-Julien, T. (1985). La diffusion spatiale des innovations. Montpellier: GIP RECLUS.Google Scholar
  45. Slack, B. (1989). Port services, ports and the urban hierarchy. Tijdschrift voor Economische En Sociale Geografie, 80, 236–243.Google Scholar
  46. Song, D. W. (2003). Port co-opetition in concept and practice. Maritime Policy and Management, 30, 29–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Stern, E., & Hayuth, Y. (1984). Developmental effects of geopolitically located ports. In B. S. Hoyle & D. Hilling (Eds.), Seaport systems and spatial change (pp. 239–249). Chichester: John Wiley and Sons.Google Scholar
  48. UNCTAD (1985). Port development: A handbook for planners in developing countries, 2nd Ed. Geneva & New-York: United Nations.Google Scholar
  49. Vallega, A. (1979). Fonctions portuaires et polarisations littorales dans la nouvelle régionalisation de la Méditerranée, quelques réflexions. Paper presented at the 2nd French-Japanese Geographical Colloquium, Tokyo.Google Scholar
  50. Verlaque, C. (1979). Inductions portuaires: Le sas sétois. Paper presented at the 2nd French-Japanese Geographical Colloquium, Tokyo.Google Scholar
  51. Vigarié, A. (1968). Géographie de la circulation. Paris: Genin.Google Scholar
  52. Wang, J. J., & Olivier, D. (2003). La gouvernance des ports et la relation ville-port en Chine. Les Cahiers Scientifiques du Transport, 44, 25–54.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media B.V. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Northeast Asian Regional Development CenterKorea Research Institute for Human Settlements (KRIHS)Dongan-gu, Anyang, Gyeonggi-doRepublic of Korea
  2. 2.Port Research CenterKorea Maritime Institute (KMI)Seocho-guRepublic of Korea

Personalised recommendations