Advertisement

Geotechnical and Geological Engineering

, Volume 36, Issue 4, pp 2517–2531 | Cite as

Deriving SPT N-Values from DCP Test Results: The Case of Foundation Design in a Tropical Environment

  • Samuel Innocent Kofi Ampadu
  • Felix F. J. Ayeh
  • Fred Boadu
Original paper
  • 108 Downloads

Abstract

A portable standard dynamic cone penetrometer (DCP) was used to overcome the challenge encountered in generating SPT N-values for the design of the foundation of power transmission towers traversing a tropical forest, large parts of which was inaccessible to motorized transport. However, this required the correlation of the DCP against the SPT N-values in order to be able to properly interpret the DCP test results. For this, side-by-side SPT and DCP tests were conducted at six different locations that were accessible to motorized transport, in different soil groups and under different groundwater conditions. The pair data generated was separated into four categories consisting of coarse-grained soils and fine-grained soils above ground water level and coarse-grained soils and fine-grained soils below groundwater level. Correlation equations with relatively high coefficient of determination values varying between 0.71 and 0.85 were then developed separately for each soil type under each groundwater condition. The equations were subsequently successfully applied to predict the SPT N-values for the sites that were inaccessible to motorized transport.

Keywords

Standard penetration test (SPT) Dynamic cone penetrometer (DCP) Correlation equation Tropical soils 

References

  1. Abuel-Naga HM, Holtridge M, Pender MJ (2011) Simple method for correcting dynamic cone penetration test results for rod friction. Géotech Lett.  https://doi.org/10.1680/geolett.11.00012 Google Scholar
  2. Ampadu SIK (1998) Laboratory investigation of the effect of soaking on strength characteristics of local soils. In: Proceedings of the international symposium on problematic soils IS-Tohoku Sendai Japan 28–30Google Scholar
  3. Ampadu SIK (2005) A correlation between the dynamic cone penetrometer and the bearing capacity of a local soil formation. In: Proceedings of the 16th ICSMGE Sept 12–16th Osaka, Japan, Millpress Science Publishers, Rotterdam, pp 655–658Google Scholar
  4. Ampadu SIK (2007) A laboratory investigation into the effect of water content on the CBR of a subgrade soil. In: 2nd International conference on mechanics of unsaturated soils, Bauhaus Universität Weimar, Germany, 7–9th March 2006, Experimental Unsaturated Soil Mechanics, Springer Proceedings in Physics 112, T. Schanz (Ed), ISSN pp 137–144Google Scholar
  5. Ampadu SIK, Arthur DT (2006) The dynamic cone penetrometer in compaction verification on a model road pavement. Geotech Test J 29(1):70–79Google Scholar
  6. Ampadu SIK, Awuku-Ditse D (2009) Model test for bearing capacity in a lateritic soil and implications for the use of the dynamic cone penetrometer. In: Hamza (ed) 17th International conference on soil mechanics and geotechnical engineering, Alexandria, Egypt, October 5–9th, pp 1095–1099Google Scholar
  7. Ampadu SIK, Fiadjoe GY (2015) The influence of water content on the dynamic cone penetration index of a lateritic soil stabilized with various percentages of quarry by-product. Transp Geotech 5(2015):68–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ampadu SIK, Ackah P, Owusu Nimo F, Boadu F (2017) A laboratory study of horizontal confinement effect on the dynamic cone penetration index of a lateritic soil in the laboratory. Transp Geotech 10:47–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. ASTM D1586-84 Standard test method for penetration test and split-barrel sampling of soils: American Society for testing and materials: annual book of standards, vol 4.08Google Scholar
  10. ASTM D1586-08: Standard test method for standard penetration test (SPT) and split-barrel sampling. ASTM StandardsGoogle Scholar
  11. ASTM D3441-94, Standard Test method for deep, Quasi-Static, cone and friction-cone penetration tests. ASTM: annual book of standards, vol 4.08Google Scholar
  12. ASTM D6951-03, Standard test method for use of the dynamic cone penetrometer in shallow pavement applications. ASTM: annual book of standards, vol 4.08Google Scholar
  13. Baudrillard J (1974) New development in dynamic penetration testing. In: Proceedings of 1st European symposium on penetration testing, Stockholm, vol 2.2, pp 25–32Google Scholar
  14. Bowles JE (1996) Foundation analysis and design, vol 5th. The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc, New York CityGoogle Scholar
  15. BS1377 (1990) Method of test for soils for civil engineering purposes. British Standards Institution, LondonGoogle Scholar
  16. Cearns PJ, McKenzie A (1988) Application of dynamic cone penetrometer in East Anglia. In: Proceedings of symposium on penetration testing in the UK, Thomas Telford, London, pp. 123–127Google Scholar
  17. Chai G, Roslie N (1998) The structural response and behavior prediction of subgrade soils using falling weight deflectometer in pavement construction. In: Proceedings of 3rd international conference on road and airfield pavement technologyGoogle Scholar
  18. Chen DH, Bilyeu J, He R (1999) Comparison of resilient moduli between field and laboratory testing. In: Soils, geology, and foundations (CD-ROM), TRB. National Research Council, Washington, D.C., pp 1–25Google Scholar
  19. Coonse J (1999) Estimating California bearing ratio of cohesive piedmont residual soil using the Scala dynamic cone penetrometer. Master’s thesis (MSCE), North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NCGoogle Scholar
  20. Davidson JL, Maultsby JP, Spoor KB (1999) Standard penetration test energy calibrations. In: Final report, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Florida, For Florida Department of Transportation, January 1999Google Scholar
  21. Decourt L, Muromachi T, Nixon IK Schmertmann JH, Thorburn S, Zolkov E (1988) Standard penetration test (SPT): international reference test procedure. In: Proceedings 1st symposium on penetration testing, Orlando, FL. A A Balkema, Amsterdam, pp 3–26Google Scholar
  22. Deger TT (2014) Overburden stress normalization and rod length corrections for the standard penetration test (SPT). A dissertation submitted in partial satisfaction of the requirements for the Ph.D. degree in Engineering, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Graduate Division, University of California, BerkeleyGoogle Scholar
  23. DIN 4094 (2002), German standard for subsoil field investigations-part 1: cone penetration tests; 2002Google Scholar
  24. Eurocode 7:2 (2007) Geotechnical design, Part 2: Ground investigating and testingGoogle Scholar
  25. Fookes PG (ed) (1997) Tropical residual soils. A geological society engineering group working party revised report, The Geological SocietyGoogle Scholar
  26. Gabr MA, Coonse J, Lambe PC (2001) A potential model for compaction evaluation of piedmont soils using dynamic cone penetrometer (DCP). Geotech Test J 24(3):301–313Google Scholar
  27. Giacheti HL, De Mio G (2008) Seismic cone penetration test on tropical soils and the ratio G0/qc. In: 3rd Geotechnical and geophysical site characterization conference, ISC’3, Taiwan, vol 1, pp 1289–1295Google Scholar
  28. Giacheti HL, Pedrini RAA (2013) The seismic SPT test in a tropical soil and the G0/N ratio. In: Delage P, Desrues J, Frank R, Puech A, Schlosser F (eds) Proceedings 16th ICSMGE, Paris, pp 535–538Google Scholar
  29. Karol RH (1960) Soil and Soil Engineering. Englewood Cliffs, Prentice Hall, p 194pGoogle Scholar
  30. Kleyn EG (1975) The Use of the dynamic cone penetrometer (DCP). Report No. 2/74 Transvaal Road Department South AfricaGoogle Scholar
  31. Kovacs WD, Salomone LA (1982) SPT Hammer energy measurements. J Geotech Eng Div ASCE 108, No GT 4Google Scholar
  32. Lingwanda MI, Larsson S, Nyaoro DL (2015) Correlations of SPT, CPT and DPL data for sandy soil in Tanzania. Geotech Geol Eng 33(5):1221–1233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Lio SSC, Whitman RV (1986) Overburden correction factors for SPT in sand. ASCE J Geotech Eng 112(3):373–377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Livneh M (1987) Validation of correlations between a number of penetration tests and in situ California bearing ratio tests. Transp Res Rec 1219, TRB, Washington, D.C., pp 56–67Google Scholar
  35. MacRobert CJ, Kalumba D, Beales P (2010) Penetration testing: test procedures and design use in South Africa. Civ Eng 18(3):29–38Google Scholar
  36. MacRobert C, Kalumba D, Beales P (2011) Correlating standard penetration test and dynamic probe super heavy penetration resistance values in sandy soils. J S Afr Inst Civ Eng 53(1):46–54Google Scholar
  37. Meardi G, Gadsby JW (1971) Discussion: the correlation of cone size in the dynamic cone penetration test with the standard penetration test. Géotechnique 21(2):184–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Meyerhoff GG (1974) General report: outside Europe. In: Proceedings of conference on penetration testing, Stockholm, vol 2.1, pp 40–48Google Scholar
  39. Morgano CM, Liang R (1992) Energy transfer in SPT-rod length effect. In: Proceedings of 4th international conference on the application of stress-wave theory to piles. A.A. Balkema Publishers, The Hague, pp 121–127Google Scholar
  40. Nguyen BT, Mohajerani A (2012) A new lightweight dynamic cone penetrometer for laboratory and field applications. Aust Geomech J 47:41–50Google Scholar
  41. Peck RB, Hanson WE, Thornburn TH (1974) Foundation engineering, 2nd edn. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  42. Reid A, Taylor J (2010) The misuse of SPTs in fine grained soils and implications of Eurocode 7. Technical Note, Ground Engineering, pp 28–31Google Scholar
  43. Riggs CO, Schmidt NO, Rassieur CL (1983) Reproducible SPT Hammer impact force with an automatic free fall SPT Hammer system. Geotech Test J ASTM 6(4):201–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Rogers JD (2006) Subsurface exploration using the standard penetration test and the cone penetrometer test. Environ Eng Geosci GSA AEG 12(2):161–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Sanglerat G (1972) The penetrometer and soil exploration–interpretation of penetrometer diagrams-theory and practice. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  46. Scala AJ (1956) Simple methods of flexible pavement design using cone penetrometers. N Z Eng 11(2):33–44Google Scholar
  47. Schanid F (2009) In-situ testing in geomechanics. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  48. Schmertmann JH (1978) The use of the SPT to measure dynamic soil properties-yes. But… ASTM STP No. 654, pp 341–355Google Scholar
  49. Sivrikaya O, Togrol E (2006) Determination of undrained shear strength of fine grained soils by means of SPT and its application in Turkey. Eng Geol 86:52–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Sowers GF, Hedges CS (1966) Dynamic cone for shallow in situ penetration testing. In: Vane shear and cone penetration resistance testing of in situ soils, ASTM STP 399, ASTMGoogle Scholar
  51. Stefanoff G, Sanglerat G, Burgdahl U, Melzer KJ (1988) International reference test procedure. In: Proceedings of the 1st international symposium on penetration testing, dynamic probing, Document 2, Orlando, I; 1988, pp 53–70Google Scholar
  52. Stroud MA (1974) The standard penetration test in insensitive clays and soft rocks. In: Proceedings of the European symposium on penetration testing ESOPT, Stockholm. National Swedish Building Research, pp 367–375Google Scholar
  53. Terzaghi K, Peck RB, Mesri G (1996) Soil mechanics in engineering practice, 3rd edn. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  54. Toll DG (2015) California bearing ratio tests on a lateritic gravel from Kenya. Transp Geotech 5:59–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Valiquette M, Robinson B, Borden RH (2010) Energy efficiency and rod length effect in standard penetration test hammers. J Transp Res Board 2186:47–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Samuel Innocent Kofi Ampadu
    • 1
  • Felix F. J. Ayeh
    • 1
  • Fred Boadu
    • 2
  1. 1.Civil Engineering DepartmentKwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST)KumasiGhana
  2. 2.Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Pratt School of EngineeringDuke UniversityDurhamUSA

Personalised recommendations